Stephen Stead


Visual Impact Assessment – GIS Mapping


 VRM Africa cc is a Visual Impact Study and GIS Mapping organisation located in George, Western Cape.  We make use of the well-documented visual impact analysis methodology developed by the Bureau of Land Management in the USA in order to accurately and objectively quantify visual impact.  This methodology is known as the Visual Resource Management technique (VRM) and involves the sequential mapping of visual resources of the site in relation to the surrounding areas. For this purpose we make extensive use of GIS and 3D modelling technology. In this endeavor, we have an extended network of other expert consultants and work closely together with Liesel Stokes of Brink, Stokes, Mhkize, a registered Landscape Architect. 

During the period that we have been operating we have completed over 80 Visual Impact Studies throughout South Africa as well as Namibia where we have been involved in setting up visual management guidelines for large open cast mines.  The majority of studies undertaken have been based in the Western Cape ensuring we have extensive practical experience assessing projects in terms of the planning policies stipulated by the DEA&DP Guidelines and the Western Cape PSDF. 

Stephen Stead

Stephen Stead studied at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg (UNP) and completed a post graduate degree in Human Geography and Geographic Information Management Systems.  He has gained 12 years of experience in the field of GIS mapping working as a consultant for the KZN Dept of Health and as a consultant for an Environmental Impact Assessment organization in George, Western Cape.  He is a member of IAIAsa South Africa and is currently serving on the National Executive Committee (NEC).  VRM Africa recognizes and aspires to the IAIAsa code of ethics.  For further details refer to .

Visual Resource Management Africa cc

P O Box 7233, George, 6531

Tel/Fax: 044-8760020

Cell: 083 560 9911

E-Mail:  Web:


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Richard G. Klein


Archaeologist – Anthropologist – Faunal Specialist – Human Evolution

Richard’s work is highly influentual in, among others, archaeological and palaeontological circles around the world.  His methodologies developed for the analysis of animal bones from archaeological sites are in use since the early 1980’s.

Richard in the field on the West coast of the Western Cape, South Africa. No matter what the occasion, this is Richard's style.

Richard writes; “My primary interest is in the co-evolution of anatomy and behavior in human evolution.  My research is mainly on ancient animal remains as indicators of early human ability to make a living.  I have analyzed more than 100 assemblages of animal fossils, primarily from southern African archaeological sites dating between 700,000 years ago and the historic present.  I am currently directing excavations at a site 70 km NNW of Cape Town that dates from the Last Interglacial interval, between roughly 115,000 and 70,000 years ago.  The animal remains show that the inhabitants exploited coastal resources much less efficiently than people who occupied the same coast during Present Interglacial (Holocene). The change in foraging efficiency probably occurred about 50,000 years ago and it helps explain the simultaneous expansion of anatomically modern humans from Africa to Eurasia, where they replaced the Neanderthals and other non-modern Eurasians.”

The below is Richard’s “medium vita”.  When I opened the below file, I could not help wondering what the “high vita” looks like.



Richard G. Klein, Curriculum Vitae, 1 January 2010

Address: Program in Human Biology, Building 20, Inner Quad, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2160

Phone: Office 1 (650) 725-9819; Home 1 (650) 852-0775; Mobile 1 (650) 575-5643


Place of Birth: Chicago, Illinois

Marital Status: Married (Gail Ann Christensen Klein)

Degrees:  A. B., University of Michigan, 1962.

M. A., University of Chicago, 1964.

Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1966.

Positions Held:

Sept. 1966 – June 1967                Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Sept. 1967 – Aug. 1969                 Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Northwestern University

Sept. 1969 – Aug. 1973                 Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Washington

Sept. 1973 – Aug. 1977                 Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago

Sept. 1977 – June 1993                Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago

July 1993 – Sept. 2007                  Professor of Anthropology, Stanford University

Dec. 2002 – present                       Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University

Sept. 2007 – present                      Professor of Biology and Anthropology, Stanford University

Research Interests: Interrelation of cultural, biological, and environmental change in human evolution; Reconstruction of environment, ecology, and human behavior from animal remains in archeological sites.

Geographic Research Area: southern Africa.

Books (Authored):

2009      The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins.  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.  Third Edition.

2002      The Dawn of Human Culture.  New York: John Wiley & Sons (with Blake Edgar).

1999      The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins.  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.  Second Edition.

1989      The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins.  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

1984      The Analysis of Animal Bones from Archeological Sites .  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.  (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1973      Ice-Age Hunters of the Ukraine.  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

1969      Man and Culture in the Late Pleistocene: A Case Study.  San Francisco, Chandler.

Books (Edited):

1999      Archaeozoology in Africa (with Ina Plug).  Grenoble, La Pensée Sauvage.

1984      Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. (with P. S. Martin).  Tucson, University of Arizona Press.

1984      Southern African Prehistory and Paleoenvironments.  Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema.


in press Large mammals and tortoises.  In (Parkington, J. E., ed.) Elands Bay Cave: A View of the Past, Chapter 7.  Tübingen Series in Palaeolithic Studies: in press. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

2010      Eland, buffalo, and wild pigs: are they equally abundant in Middle and Later Stone Age sites?  Journal of Human Evolution: in press (with T. D. Weaver and T. E. Steele).

2010      Morphometric identification of bovid metapodials to genus and implications for taxon-free habitat reconstruction. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 389-401 (with R. G. Franciscus and T. E. Steele).

2009      Darwin and the recent African origin of modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (38): 16007–16009.

2009      Mogapelwa:  Archaeology, paleoenvironment and oral traditions at Lake Ngami, Botswana.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 64 (189): 13–32. (with L.H. Robbins,  A. C. Campbell,   M. L. Murphy, G. A. Brook,  A. A. Mabuse,  R. K. Hitchcock,  G. Babutsi,  M. Mmolawa,  K.M. Stewart,  Teresa E. Steele, and C. C. Appleton).

2009      Late Pleistocene subsistence strategies and resource intensification in Africa.  In (Hublin, J.-J. and Richards, M. P., eds).  The Evolution of Hominid Diets: Integrating Approaches to the Study of Palaeolithic Subsistence: 111-124.  New York: Springer Publishing (with T. E. Steele).

2009      Hominin dispersals in the Old World.  In (Scarre, C. Ed.) The Human Past: World Prehistory & the Development of Human Societies, Second Edition, 84-123.  London: Thames & Hudson.

2008      Out of Africa and the evolution of human behavior.  Evolutionary Anthropology 17 (6): 267-281.

2008      The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age Rockshelter and the evolution of coastal foraging.  South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 10: 66-89 (with G. Avery, D. Halkett, M. Tusenius, J. Orton, and T. E. Steele).

2008      Intertidal shellfish Use during the Middle and Later Stone Age of South Africa.  Archaeofauna 17: 63-76 (with T. E. Steele).

2007      The mammalian fauna associated with a fossil hominin skull and later Acheulean artifacts at Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.  Journal of Human Evolution 52: 164-186. (with Graham Avery, Kathryn Cruz-Uribe, and Teresa Steele).

2005/06 Mollusk and tortoise size as proxies for stone age population density in South Africa: implications for the evolution of human cultural capacity.  Munibe 57: 221-237 (with T. E. Steele).

2005      The evolution of human walking.  In (Rose, J. and Gamble, J. G., Eds.) Human Walking: 23-32.  Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams  & Wilkins (with T. D. Weaver).

2005      Hominin dispersals in the Old World.  In (Scarre, C. Ed.) The Human Past: World Prehistory & the Development of Human Societies: 84-123.  London: Thames & Hudson.

2004      Tortoises as food and taphonomic elements in palaeo “landscapes”.  In (Brugal, J.-Ph. And Desse, J. Eds.) Petits Animaux et Sociétés Humains: Du complement alimentaire aux resources utilitaires: 147-161.  Antibes: Editions APOCA (with G. Avery, A. W. Kandel, N.J. Conard, and K. Cruz-Uribe).

2004      The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal  resources.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 5708-5715.  (with G, Avery,  D. Halkett,  J. E. Parkington, T. E. Steele, T. P. Volman and R. Yates).

2003      First Excavation of Intact Middle Stone Age Layers at Ysterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa: Implications for Middle Stone Age Ecology. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 955-971 (with G. Avery, K. Cruz-Uribe, D. Halkett, T. Hart, J. Orton, J. E. Parkington, T. P. Volman, and R. Yates).

2003      Excavation of buried Late Acheulean (Mid-Quaternary) land Surfaces at Duinefontein 2, Western Cape Province, South Africa.  Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 559-575  (with G. Avery, M. Avery, K. Cruz-Uribe, D. Halkett, T. Hart, R. G. Milo, and T. P. Volman).

2003      Whither the Neanderthals?  Science 299: 1525-1527.

2002      Foreword to The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Ya’akov, Israel: The Wood Assemblage by Naama Goren-Inbar, Ella Werker, and Craig S. Feibel, pp. vii-viii.  Oxford: Oxbow Books.

2002      The origin of modern humans.  In (Pagel, Mark, Ed.) Encyclopedia of Evolution, pp. 738-740.  New York: Oxford University Press.

2002      Foreword to Desolate Landscapes: Ice-Age Settlements in Eastern Europe by John F. Hoffecker, pp. xv-xvi.  New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

2001      Fully modern humans.  In (Price, T. D., and Feinman, G., eds.)  Archaeology at the Millennium, pp. 109-135.  New York: Plenum Press.

2001      Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa: Preliminary Report on the 1992 – 1999 Excavations of the Middle Stone Age Levels.  Journal of Archaeological Science 28: 421-448 (with C. S. Henshilwood, J. C. Sealy, R. Yates, K. Cruz-Uribe, P. Goldberg, F. E. Grine, C. Poggenpoel, K. van Niekerk,  and I. Watts).

2001      Southern Africa and modern human origins.  Journal of Anthropological Research 57: 1-16.

2000      The Earlier Stone Age of Southern Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 27: 107-122.

2000      Macromammals and reptiles.  In (Barham, L., ed.) The Middle Stone Age of Zambia, South Central Africa, 51-56.  Bristol: Western Academic & Specialist Press (with Kathryn Cruz-Uribe).

2000      Archaeology, paleoenvironment, and chronology of the Tsodilo Hills White Paintings Rock Shelter, northwest Kalahari Desert, Botswana.  Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 1085-1113. (with L. H. Robbins, M. L. Murphy, G. A. Brook, A. H. Ivester, R. G. Milo, K. M. Stewart, W. S. Downey, and N. J. Stevens).

2000      L’art et-il né d’une mutation génétique?  La Recherche Hor-Série 4 (Novembre 2000): 18-21.  (Reprinted 2005 in Homo sapiens: l’Odyssée de l’Espèce, pp. 219-226.  Paris, Tallandier; 2006 in La Naissance de l’Art.  Paris, Tallandier).

2000      Human evolution and large mammal extinctions.  In (Vrba, E. S. and Schaller, G. S. eds.) Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives, Present and Future: Fossil Record, Behavioral Ecology, Systematics, and Conservation, pp. 128-139. New Haven: Yale University Press.

2000      Archeology and the evolution of human behavior.  Evolutionary Anthropology 9(1):  17-36.

2000      Middle and Later Stone Age large mammal and tortoise remains from Die Kelders Cave 1, Western Cape Province, South Africa Journal of Human Evolution 38: 169-195. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

2000      Middle Stone Age stratigraphy and excavations at Die Kelders Cave 1 (Western Cape province, South Africa): the 1992, 1993, and 1995 field seasons. Journal of Human Evolution 38: 7-42 (with C. W. Marean, P. Goldberg, G. Avery, and F. E. Grine)

1999      Fur seal bones reveal variability in prehistoric human seasonal movements on the southwest African coast.  ArchaeoZoologia 10: 181-188 (with K. Cruz-Uribe and J. D. Skinner).

1999      Paleoenvironmental and human behavioral implications of the Boegoeberg 1 late Pleistocene hyena den, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research 52: 393-403 (with K. Cruz-Uribe, T. Hart, D. Halkett, and J. E. Parkington).

1999      Skeletal part representation in archaeofaunas: Comments on “Explaining the ‘Klasies Pattern’: Kua Ethnoarchaeology, the Die Kelders Middle Stone Age archaeofauna, long bone fragmentation and carnivore ravaging” by Bartram and Marean.  Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 1225-1234. (with K. Cruz-Uribe and R. G. Milo)

1999      Duinefontein 2: an Acheulean site in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.  Journal of Human Evolution 36: 153-190. (with G. Avery, K. Cruz-Uribe, D. Halkett, T. Hart, R. G. Milo, and T. P. Volman).

1999      Craniometry of the genus Equus and the Taxonomic Affinities of the Extinct South African Quagga.  South African Journal of Science 95(2): 81-86 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1998      Why anatomically modern humans did not disperse from Africa 100,000 years ago.  In (Bar-Yosef, O., Akazawa, A., and Aoki, K., eds.)  Neanderthals and Modern Humans in West Asia, pp. 509-521.  New York: Plenum Press.

1998      Additional human fossils from Klasies River Mouth, South Africa.  Journal of Human Evolution 35 (1): 95-107. (with F. E. Grine, O. M. Pearson, and G. P. Rightmire).

1998      Hyrax and hare bones from modern South African eagle roosts and the detection of eagle involvement in fossil assemblages. Journal of Archaeological Science 25: 135-147 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1997      The 1992-93 Excavations at the Die Kelders Middle and Late Stone Age Cave Site, South Africa. Journal of Field Archaeology 24(3): 263-291.  (with G. Avery, K.Cruz-Uribe, P. Goldberg, F. E. Grine, C. W. Marean, H. P. Schwarcz, A. I. Thackeray, and M. L. Wilson.)

1996      Exploitation of large bovids and seals at Middle and Later Stone Age sites in South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 31: 315-334. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1996      Size variation in the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and late Quaternary climatic change in South Africa.  Quaternary Research 46: 193-207. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1996      Neanderthals and modern humans in West Asia: a conference summary.  Evolutionary Anthropology 4 (6): 187-193.

1996      Observations on the Acheulean occupation site of Ambrona (Soria Province, Spain) with particular reference to recent investigations (1980-1983) and the lower occupation.  Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 38, 33-82. (with F. C. Howell, K. W. Butzer, and L. G. Freeman.)

1996      Prehistoric human adaptation to Last and Present Interglacial conditions on the southern coast of Africa.  Abstracts of the Fourteenth Biennial Meeting of the American Quaternary Association: 16-18.

1996      The identification of Equus skulls to species, with particular reference to the craniometric and systematic affinities of the extinct South African quagga.  In (K. Stewart and K. Seymour, Eds.) Palaeoecology and Palaeoenvironments of Late Cenozoic Mammals: Tributes to the Career of C. S. (Rufus) Churcher, pp. 598-629.  Toronto, University of Toronto Press. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1996      Paleoenvironment and archaeology of Drotsky’s Cave: Western Kalahari Desert, Botswana.  Journal of Archaeological Science 22, 7-22. (with L. H. Robbins, M. L. Murphy, N. J. Stevens, G. A. Brook, A. H. Ivester, K. A. Haberyan, R. G. Milo, K. M. Stewart, D. G. Matthiesen, and A. J. Winkler.)

1995      Anatomy, behavior, and modern human origins. Journal of World Prehistory 9: 167-198.

1995      The Tor Hamar Fauna.  In (D. O. Henry Ed.) Prehistoric Cultural Ecology and Evolution: Insights from Southern Jordan.  New York: Plenum Press, pp. 405-416.

1995      Anthropology (Update).  Science Year, 200-202.  Chicago, World Book Corporation.

1995      Dating and context of three Middle Stone Age sites with bone points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire.  Science 268, 548-553.  (with A. S. Brooks. D. M. Helgren,  J. S. Cramer, A. Franklin, W. Hornyak, J. Keating, W. J. Rink, H. Schwarcz,  J. N. Leith Smith, K. Stewart,  N. E. Todd, J. Verniers, and J. E. Yellen).

1994      The long-horned African buffalo (Pelorovis antiquus) is an extinct species.  Journal of Archaeological Science 21, 725-733.

1994      Anthropology (Update).  Science Year, pp. 208-211.  Chicago, World Book Corporation.

1994      The Paleolithic mammalian fauna from the 1910-14 excavations at El Castillo Cave (Cantabria).  Festschrift for Joaquín González Echegaray.  Centro de Investigacion y Museo de Altamira, Monografiyas 17, 141-158. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1994      Southern Africa before the Iron Age.  In (R. S. Corruccini & R. L. Ciochon, Eds.) Integrative Paths to the Past: Paleoanthropological Advances in Honor of F. Clark Howell, pp. 471-519.  Englewood Cliffs (N. J.): Prentice-Hall.

1994      Chew marks and cut marks on animal bones from the Kasteelberg B and Dune Field Midden Later Stone Age sites, western Cape Province, South Africa.  Journal of Archaeological Science 21, 35-49.  (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1994      An introduction to the problem of modern human origins.  In (M. H. Nitecki and V. Nitecki, Eds.) Origins of Anatomically Modern Human, pp. 3-17.  New York, Plenum Press.

1993      The ecological and archeological significance of rock hyrax bones from modern eagle roosts in South Africa.  In (A. T. Clason, S. Payne, and  H.-P. Uerpmann, Eds.), pp. 117-134.   Skeletons in her Cupboard.  Festchrift for Juliet Clutton-Brock.  Oxbow Monograph 34.  Oxford: Oxbow Books.  (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1993      Anthropology (Update).  Science Year, pp. 205-208.  Chicago, World Book Corporation.

1993      Hunter-gatherers and farmers in Africa.  In (Burenhult, G., Ed.)  People of the Stone Age: Hunter Gatherers and Early Farmers, 39-55.  San Francisco, HarperCollins.

1993      Late Pleistocene Human Remains from the Sea Harvest Site, Saldanha Bay, South Africa.  The South African Journal of Science 89: 145-152 (with F. E. Grine).

1992      The impact of early people on their environment: the case of large mammal extinctions.  In (J. E. Jacobsen & J. Firor, Eds.) Human Impact on the  Environment: Ancient Roots, Current Challenges, pp. 13-34.   Boulder (Colorado), Westview Press.

1992      The archeology of modern human origins.  Evolutionary Anthropology 1: 5-14.

1992      Anthropology (Update).  Science Year, pp. 231-233.  Chicago, World Book Corporation.

1991      Dating, archaeology and human fossils from the Middle Stone Age Layers of Die Kelders Cave 1, South Africa.  The Journal of Human Evolution 21: 363-395 (with F. E. Grine & T. P. Volman.)

1991      The bovids from Elandsfontein, South Africa, and their implications for the age, paleoenvironment, and origins of the site.  The African Archaeological Review 9: 21-79. (with K. Cruz-Uribe.)

1991      Size variation in the Cape Dune Molerat (Bathyergus suillus) and Late Quaternary climatic change in the Southwestern Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research. 36: 243-256.

1991      Environmental, ecological, and paleoanthropological implications of the Late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Equus Cave, northern Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research 36: 94-119 (with K. Cruz-Uribe & P. B. Beaumont.)

1989      Faunal Evidence for Prehistoric Herder-Forager Activities at Kasteelberg, Vredenburg Peninsula, western Cape Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 44: 82-97 (with K. Cruz-Uribe.)

1989      Biological and behavioural perspectives on modern human origins in southern Africa.  In (P. Mellars & C. Stringer, Eds.) The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans: 529-546.  Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.

1989      Why does skeletal part representation differ between smaller and larger bovids at Klasies River Mouth and other archeological sites?  Journal of Archaeological Science 16: 363-381.

1989      Glacial/interglacial size variation in fossil spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) from Britain.  Quaternary Research 32: 88-95 (with K. Scott).

1988      The causes of “robust” australopithecine extinction.  In (F. E. Grine, Ed.) The Evolutionary History of the Robust Australopithecines: 499-505.  New York, Aldine de Gruyter.

1988      The archaeological significance of animal bones from Acheulean sites in southern Africa.  The African Archaeological Review 6: 3-26.

1988      Dimensions of research at El Juyo (an earlier Magdalenian site in Cantabrian Spain).  In (H. Dibble, & A. Montet-White, Eds.) Upper Pleistocene Prehistory of Western Eurasia: 3-39.  Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Museum (with L. G. Freeman, J. González Echegaray & W. T. Crowe.)

1987      Excavaciones en la Cueva del Juyo.  Centro de Investigacion y Museo de Altamira, Monografiyas 14: 1-224 (with I. Barandiarán, L. G. Freeman & J. González Echegaray).

1987      Problems and prospects in understanding how early people exploited animals.  In (M. H. Nitecki & D. V. Nitecki, Eds.)  Evolution of Human Hunting: 11-45.  New York, Plenum Press.

1987      The extinct blue antelope.  Sagittarius 2(3): 20-23.

1987      Paleolithic.  McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (Sixth Edition) Vol. 13: 47-51.  New York, McGraw-Hill.

1987      Large mammal and tortoise bones from Elands Bay Cave and nearby sites, Western Cape Province, South Africa.  Papers in the Prehistory of the Western Cape, South Africa (J. E. Parkington & M. Hall, Eds.)  British Archaeological Reports International Series 332: 132-163 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1986      Carnivore size and Quaternary climatic change in southern Africa.  Quaternary Research 25: 153-170.

1986      Re-analysis of faunal assemblages from the Haua Fteah and other Late Quaternary sites in Cyrenaican Libya.  Journal of Archaeological Science 13: 515-542 (with K. Scott.)

1986      The brown hyaenas of the Cape Flats.  Sagittarius 1(4): 8-13.

1986      The prehistory of stone age herders in the Cape Province of South Africa.  South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 5: 5-12.

1986      Pascal programs for computing taxonomic abundance in samples of fossil mammals.  Journal of Archaeological Science 13: 171-187 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1985      Pleistocene and Holocene human remains from Equus Cave, South Africa.  Anthropology 8: 55-98 (with F. E. Grine).

1985      Ancestors: Breaking Away (“Even in its infancy, modern humanity displayed a talent for innovation.”)  Natural History 94(1): 4-7.

1984      The prehistory of stone age herders in South Africa.  In (J. D. Clark & S. Brandt, Eds.) From Hunters to Farmers: The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa: 281-289.  Berkeley, University of California Press.

1984      Later Stone Age faunal samples from Heuningsneskrans Shelter (Transvaal) and Leopard’s Hill Cave (Zambia).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 39: 109-116.

1984      The remains of larger mammals from Fairview Shelter.  Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums (Human Sciences) 1(3): 82-86.

1984      The large mammals of southern Africa: late Pliocene to Recent.  In (R. G. Klein, Ed.) Southern African Prehistory and Paleoenvironments: 107-146.  Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema.

1984      Mammalian extinctions and stone age people in Africa.  In (P. S. Martin & R. G. Klein, Eds.) Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution: 553-573.  Tucson, University of Arizona Press.

1983      Stone age population numbers and average tortoise size at Byneskranskop Cave 1 and Die Kelders Cave 1, Southern Cape Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 38: 26-30 (with K. Cruz-Uribe)

1983      Palaeoenvironmental implications of Quaternary large mammals in the Fynbos Biome.  South African National Scientific Programmes Reports 75: 116-138.

1983      The Stone Age prehistory of Southern Africa.  Annual Review of Anthropology 12: 25-48.

1983      Faunal remains from some Middle and Later Stone Age archaeological sites in South West Africa.  Journal of the South West African Scientific Society 36/37: 91-114 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1983      A stone age sanctuary.  Natural History 92(8): 46-53 (with L. G. Freeman & J. González Echegaray.)

1983      The computation of ungulate age (mortality) profiles from dental crown heights.  Paleobiology 9: 70-78 (with K. Cruz-Uribe.)

1983      Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon Man: What do we really know about them?  American Scholar 52(3): 386-392.

1983      The calculation and interpretation of ungulate age profiles from dental crown heights.  In (G. Bailey, Ed.) Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory: A European Perspective: 47-57.  Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (with K. Allwarden & C. Wolf).

1982      Age (mortality) profiles as a means of distinguishing hunted species from scavenged ones in stone age archeological sites.  Paleobiology 8: 151-158.

1982      Patterns of ungulate mortality and ungulate mortality profiles from Langebaanweg (early Pliocene) and Elandsfontein (middle Pleistocene), southwestern Cape Province, South Africa.  Annals of the South African Museum 90: 49-94.

1981      Later Stone Age subsistence at Byeneskranskop Cave, South Africa.  In (R. S. O. Harding & G. Teleki, Eds.) Omnivorous Primates: Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution: 166-190.  New York, Columbia University Press.

1981      Ungulate mortality and sedimentary facies in the late Tertiary Varswater Formation, Langebaanweg, South-Western Cape Province, South Africa.  Annals of the South African Museum 81: 233-254.

1981      A hyaena-accumulated bone assemblage from late Holocene deposits at Deelpan, Orange Free State.  Annals of the South African Museum 86: 217-227 (with L. Scott.)

1981      Stone Age predation on small African bovids.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 36: 55-65.

1981      The use of dental crown heights for constructing age profiles of red deer and similar species in archaeological samples.  Journal of Archaeological Science 8: 1-31 (with C. Wolf, L. G.  Freeman & K. Allwarden).

1980      Late Pleistocene hunters.  In (A. Sheratt, Ed.) The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Archaeology: 87-95.  Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

1980      Larger Mammals (from Driel Shelter, Natal).  Annals of the Natal Museum 24: 62-67.

1980      Environmental and ecological implications of large mammals from Upper Pleistocene and Holocene sites in southern Africa.  Annals of the South African Museum 81: 223-283.

1979      Stone age exploitation of animals in southern Africa.  American Scientist 67: 151-160.

1979      Paleoenvironmental and cultural implications of late Holocene archeological faunas from the Orange Free State and north-central Cape Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 34: 34-49.

1979      Mammals (from Diana’s Vow, Zimbabwe).  Occasional Papers of the National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia 4(4): 147-148.

1978      Preliminary results of the analysis of the mammalian fauna from the Redcliff Stone Age cave site, Rhodesia.  Occasional Papers of the National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia 4(2): 74-80.

1978      The fauna and overall interpretation of the “Cutting 10″ Acheulean site at Elandsfontein (Hopefield), south-western Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research 10: 69-83.

1978      Stone Age predation on large African bovids.  Journal of Archaeological Science 5: 195-217.

1978      A preliminary report on the mammalian fauna from the Boomplaas Stone Age Cave site, Oudtshoorn District, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 33: 66-75.

1978      The vertebrate fauna from the Buffelskloof Rock Shelter.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 33: 35-38.

1977      The ecology of early man in southern Africa.  Science 197: 115-126.

1977      The mammalian fauna from the Middle and Later Stone Age (later Pleistocene) levels of Border Cave, Natal Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 32: 14-27.

1976      The mammalian fauna of the Klasies River Mouth sites, southern Cape Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 31: 75-98.

1976      The interpretation of mammalian faunas from stone age archaeological sites, with special reference to sites in the southern Cape Province, South Africa.  Paper presented at Burg Wartenstein Symposium No. 69 [published 1980 in (A. K. Behrensmeyer & A. Hill, Eds.) Fossils in the Making: 223-246. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.)

1976      Cultural adaptations to Pleistocene “steppe tundras” in the Old World.  Abstracts of the Fourth Biennial Meeting of the American Quaternary Association: 90-91.

1976      The fossil history of Raphicerus H. Smith, 1827 (Bovidae, Mammalia) in the Cape Biotic Zone.  Annals of the South African Museum 71: 169-191.

1976      A preliminary report on the Duinefontein 2 “Middle Stone Age” open-air site (Melkbosstrand, South-Western Cape Province, South Africa).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 31: 12-20.

1975      Paleoanthropological implications of the non-archeological bone assemblage from Swartklip 1, south-western Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research 5: 275-288.

1975      Ecology of stone age man at the southern tip of Africa. Archaeology 28: 238-247.  [Reprinted 1978 in (P. Whitten & D. E. Hunter, Eds.) Readings in Physical Anthropology and Archaeology: 137-146.  New York, Harper & Row].

1975      Middle Stone Age man-animal relationships in southern Africa: evidence from Klasies River Mouth and Die Kelders.  Science 190: 265-267.

1975      The relevance of Old World archeology for the first entry of man into the New World.  Quaternary Research 5: 391-394.

1974      Ice-age Hunters of the Ukraine.  Scientific American 230(6): 96-105.  [Reprinted in (B. M. Fagan, Ed.) Avenues to Antiquity: 66-75.  San Francisco, W. H. Freeman & Co.]

1974      The fauna of Scott’s Cave, Gamtoos Valley, southeastern Cape.  South African Journal of Science 70: 186-187 (with K. Scott).

1974      Environment and subsistence of prehistoric man in the southern Cape Province, South Africa.  World Archaeology 5: 249-284.

1974      On the taxonomic status, distribution, and ecology of the blue antelope, Hippotragus leucophaeus (Pallas, 1776).  Annals of the South African Museum 65: 99-143.

1974      A provisional statement on terminal Pleistocene mammalian extinctions in the Cape Biotic Zone (southern Cape Province, South Africa).  South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 2: 39-45.

1973      Geological antiquity of Rhodesian Man.  Nature 244: 311-312.

1972      A preliminary report on the June through September 1970 excavations at Nelson Bay Cave (Cape Province, South Africa).  Palaeoecology of Africa 6: 177-208.

1972      The late Quaternary mammalian fauna of Nelson Bay Cave (Cape Province, South Africa): its implications for megafaunal extinctions and for cultural and environmental change.  Quaternary Research 2: 135-142.

1971      The Pleistocene prehistory of Siberia.  Quaternary Research 1: 133-161.

1971      U.S.S.R.  In (K. P. Oakley, B. G. Campbell & T. Molleson, Eds.) Catalogue of Fossil Hominids Part II: Europe: 313-335.  British Museum (Natural History), London (with I. K. Ivanova and G. F. Debets).

1970      The Mousterian of European Russia.  Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 25: 77-112.

1970      Problems in the study of the Middle Stone Age of South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 25: 127-134.

1969      El hombre del Pleistoceno en el litoral oriental del Mar Negro.  Ampurias 29: 1-23.

1969      Mousterian cultures in European Russia.  Science 165: 257-265.

1967      Radiocarbon dates on occupation sites of Pleistocene age in the U.S.S.R.  Arctic Anthropology 4: 224-225.

1966      Chellean and Acheulean on the territory of the Soviet Union.  American Anthropologist 68(2,2): 1-45.

1965      The Middle Paleolithic of the Crimea.  Arctic Anthropology 3: 34-68.

Reviews, Letters, and Abstracts:

In press  “Elandsfontein” and “Nelson Bay Cave” for the Catalogue of Southern African Fossil Hominids (P. V. Tobias, ed.).  Brussels: Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences.  In press.

2009      Animals and People: Archaeozoological Papers in Honour of Ina Plug. (Badenhorst, Shaw, Mitchell, Peter, Driver, Jonathan C., editors).   BAR International Series 1849.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 64: in press.

2009      Spreeuwal: an Upper Pleistocene Wetland on the Western Cape Coast, South Africa.  Southern African Society for Quaternary Research Abstracts 2009: 11 (With G. Avery and K. Cruz-Uribe).

2009      Eland, Buffalo, and Wild Pigs: Are They Equally Abundant in Middle and Later Stone Age Sites?  Paleoanthropology 2009: A20 (with Tim Weaver and Teresa Steele).

2008      Gibraltar data are too sparse to inform on Neanderthal exploitation of coastal resource Gibraltar data are too sparse to inform on Neanderthal exploitation of coastal resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (51): E115 (with T. E. Steele)

2007      The Chosen Species: The Long March of Human Evolution (Juan Luis Arsuaga and Ignacio Martínez).  Quarterly Review of Biology 82: 307-308.

2007      “Shell artefact production at 32,000-28,000 BP in island Southeast Asia” by Katherine Szabó, Adam Brumm, and Peter Bellwood.  Current Anthropology 48: 716-717.

2006      “The Lower/Middle Paleolithic periodization in western Europe” by Gilliane F. Monnier.  Current Anthropology 47(5): 730-731

2006      “Ahead of the Game: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Hunting Behaviors in the Southern Caucasus” by D. S. Adler et al.  Current Anthropology 47 (1): 108-109.

2004      Principles of Human Evolution (Second Edition) (Roger Lewin and Robert A. Foley).  Quarterly Review of Biology 79: 339.

2004      Neanderthals and Modern Humans: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective  (C. Finlyason).  Science 305: 45.

2003      “The origin of modern human behavior: critique of the models and their test implications” by Christopher S. Henshilwood and Curtis W. Marean.  Current Anthropology 44(5): 640-641.

2003      “An early case of color symbolism:  ochre use by modern humans in Qafzeh Cave” by Erella Hovers et al.  Current Anthropology 44: 512-513.

2002      Settlement Dynamics of the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age (N. J. Conard, ed.).  Journal of Human Evolution 42: 785-786.

2002      Kalambo Falls Prehistoric Site Volume III ( J. D.. Clark).  Quarterly Review of Biology, 77: 195.

2002      Middle Pleistocene paleoenvironments of hominid sites in the Western Cape. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Supp. 34: 58-58.  (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

2001      Humanity from African Naissance to Coming Millennia (P. V. Tobias, M. A. Raath, J. Moggi-Cecchi & G. A. Doyle, eds).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 65:110-111.

2001      The Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory (E. Delson, I. Tattersall, J. A. Van Couvering, and A. S. Brooks, eds).  Quarterly Review of Biology 76: 532-533.

1999      Zooarchaeology (E. J. Reitz and E. S. Wing).  Journal of Anthropological Research: 55: 612-614.

1999      Human Beginnings in South Africa: Uncovering the Secrets of the Stone Age (H. J. Deacon and Janette Deacon).  South African Archaeological Bulletin: 54:149-150.

1999      Conceptual Issues in Modern Human Origins Research (G. A. Clark and C. M. Willermet, Eds.).  American Journal of Human Biology 11: 81.

1998      “Mousterian large-mammal remains from Kobeh Cave: behavioral implications for Neanderthals and early modern humans” (C. W. Marean and S. Y. Kim).  Current Anthropology 39: S96-S97.

1997      Race and Human Evolution: The Fatal Attraction (M. H. Wolpoff and R. Caspari).  Quarterly Review of Biology 72: 356.

1996      The Neanderthal Legacy: An Archaeological Perspective from Western Europe (P. A. Mellars).  Science 272, 822-823.

1995      Naming our Ancestors: An Anthology of Hominid Taxonomy (W. E. Meikle and S. T. Taylor, Eds.).  Quarterly Review of Biology 70:114.

1995      Honor Among Thieves: A Zooarchaeological Study of Neanderthal Ecology (M. C. Stiner).  Science 267: 1843-1844.

1994      Chimpanzee Material Culture: Implications for Human Evolution (W. C. McGrew).  Quarterly Review of Biology 69: 428-429..

1994      From Bones to Behavior: Ethnoarchaeologial and Experimental Contributions to the Interpretation of Faunal Remains (J. Hudson, Ed.)  American Antiquity 59: 565-566.

1994      The Origin of Modern Humans and the Impact of Chronometric Dating (M. J. Aitken, C. B. Stringer, and P. A. Mellars, Eds.).  International Journal of Primatology: 15: 327-329.

1993      The Origin and Evolution of Humans and Humanness (D. Tab Rasmussen, Ed.).  American Journal of Human Biology 5(5): 590-591.

1993      Before Lascaux: The Complex Record of the Early Upper Paleolithic (H. Knecht, A. Pike-Tay, and R. White, Eds.).  Science 262: 1751-1752.

1993      Making Silent Stones Speak: Human Evolution and the Dawn of Technology  (Kathy D. Schick and Nicholas Toth). Anthroquest 47, 16.

1993      The Human Evolution Source Book (R. Ciochon and J. Fleagle, Eds.).  Quarterly Review of Biology: 68: 467.

1993      The Middle Paleolithic: Adaptation, Behavior and Variability (H. L. Dibble and P. Mellars, Eds.). Journal of Field Archaeology 20, 237-240.

1993      Prehistory: The World of Early Man (J. Guilaine, Ed.).  Quarterly Review of Biology 68: 310.

1992      Contribution to the Archaeozoology of Central Africa (W. van Neer).  Palaeoecology of Africa 23: 215-220.

1992      A quarter century of paleoanthropology: views from the USA (L. G. Straus, ed.).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 47, 136-137.

1992      Narratives of Human Evolution (M. Landau).  Quarterly Review of Biology 67: 86-87.

1987      Stone Age Prehistory: Studies in Memory of Charles McBurney (G. N. Bailey & P. Callow, Eds.).  Antiquity 61: 142.

1987      Quantitative Zooarchaeology.  Topics in the Analysis of Archaeological Faunas (D. K. Grayson).  Quarterly Review of Archaeology 8(2): 8-9.

1987      Teeth (S. Hillson).  American Scientist 75: 645.

1986      The Omo Micromammals: Systematics and Paleoecology of Early Man Sites from Ethiopia (H. B. Wesselman).  American Anthropologist 88: 231-232.

1986      Faunal Remains from Klasies River Mouth (L. R. Binford).  American Anthropologist: 88: 494-495.

1986      “Systematic butchery by Plio/Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania” (H. T. Bunn & E. M. Kroll).  Current Anthropology 27(5): 446-447.

1986      The Upper Paleolithic of the Central Russian Plain (O. Soffer).  Journal of Human Evolution 15: 827-828.

1985      Hominid Evolution and Community Ecology (R. Foley, Ed.). Nature 315: 609.

1985      The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (F. H. Smith & F. Spencer, Eds.). Human Biology 57: 489-491.

1983      Ecology of Desert Organisms (G. Louw & M. Seely).  Choice 20: 1014.

1983      Paleoecology of Beringia (D. M. Hopkins, J. V. Matthews, Jr., C. E. Schweger & S. B. Young, Eds.)  Science 220: 1226-1227.

1983      The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Periods of Britain (D. Roe).  Quaternary Research 15: 254-255.

1982      Rock Shelters of the Perigord (H. Laville, J.-Ph. Rigaud & J. Sackett).  Journal of Archaeological Science 85: 307-308.

1982      The Hunters or the Hunted? (C. K. Brain). Paleobiology 8: 171-175.

1982      Environmental Archaeology (M. Shackley).  American Scientist: 544-545.

1982      The Environment in British Prehistory (I. Simmons & M. Tooley, Eds.)  American Antiquity 47: 904.

1981      Prehistory of the Eastern Sahara (F. Wendorf & R. Schild).  American Anthropologist 83: 666-668.

1980      European Prehistory (S. Milisauskas).  American Antiquity 45: 209-210.

1980      Reindeer and Caribou Hunters: An Archaeological Study (A. E. Spiess).  Science 207: 632.

1980      Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains (G. Frison).  Journal of Archaeological Science 7: 103-104.

1980      Paleonutrition (E. Wing and A. Brown).  Journal of Archaeological Science 7: 393-394.

1979      Olorgesailie: Archaeological Studies of a Middle Pleistocene Lake Basin in Kenya (G. Ll. Isaac).  American Anthropologist 81: 148-150.

1979      Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology (L. R. Binford).  Journal of Archaeological Science 6: 207.

1979      La Préhistoire Française (H. de Lumley & J. Guilaine, Eds.). Quaternary Research 12: 156-157.

1979      The Emergence of Man (J. E. Pfeiffer).  The Quarterly Review of Biology 54: 213.

1978      Early Man in the Soviet Union: The Implications of some Recent Discoveries (C.B.M. McBurney).  Antiquity 52: 61-62.

1977      Where Hunters Gathered (H. J. Deacon).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 32: 93-96.

1976      Paleoanthropology, Morphology and Paleoecology (R. H. Tuttle, Ed.).  Quarterly Review of Biology 51: 558.

1975      Northeast Asia in Prehistory (C. S. Chard).  Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 35: 286-290.

1973      Environment and Archaeology (2nd Edition) (K. W. Butzer).  The Professional Geographer 25: 291-292.

1972      Atlas of Animal Bones (E. Schmid).  Quaternary Research 2: 258.

1972      The Study of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites (R. E. Chaplin).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 27: 94.

1971      Prehistoric Russia: An Outline (T. Sulimirski).  American Anthropologist 73: 1422-1423.

1970      Human Origins: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology (T. W. McKern & S. McKern).  American Anthropologist 72: 710-711.

1969      “Evolution of Palaeolithic in Central and Eastern Europe” (K. Valoch).  Current Anthropology 9: 376.

1969      La Station Paléolithique d’Erd–Hongrie (V. Gabori-Czank). American Anthropologist 71: 1219-1223.

1969      Kak vozniklo chelovechestvo (How Mankind Originated) (Yu. V. Semenov).  American Anthropologist 71: 343-344.

1969      “Cultural traditions and environment of early man” (D. Collins).  Current Anthropology 10: 307.

1969      “Neanderthal Man and Homo sapiens in Central and Eastern Europe” (J. Jelinek).  Current Anthropology 10: 493-495.

1967      Izobrazheniya cheloveka v paleoliticheskom isskustve Evrazii (Portrayals of man in the Paleolithic Art of Eurasia) (Z. A. Abramova).  American Anthropologist 69: 534-535.

1966      Archaeology and Geomorphology of Northern Asia: Selected Works (H. N. Michael, Ed.) and The Soviet Far East in Antiquity an Archaeological and Historical Study of the Maritime Region of the U.S.S.R. (A. P. Okladnikov).  American Anthropologist 68: 1302-1303.

Editorial and Review Boards (* = past):

Journal of Archaeological Science, Editor

African Natural History

*Chicago Academy of Sciences

Evolutionary Anthropology


*International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ)

Journal of Field Archaeology

*Journal of Human Evolution

L. S. B. Leakey Foundation, Chair, Grants Committee

*National Science Foundation Archeology Panel

*National Science Foundation, HOMINID Panel

*PALEO: Révue d’Archéologie Préhistorique


*Paleoecology of Africa

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Quaternary Research

*Science Year (World Book)

South African Archaeological Bulletin

*United States National INQUA Committee

*Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Advisory Board

Current Professional Memberships:

American Academy of Arts and Sciences

American Association of Physical Anthropologists

California Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Sciences

Royal Society of South Africa

South African Archaeological Society (President July 2002 – July 2004)


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Harriet Clift


Historical Archaeologist – Archival & Deeds Research


Harriet - the joys of sandbagging, Shell Midden Complex, Pinnacle Point, Mossel Bay - winter 2008


Harriet holds a Masters degree (University of Cape Town, South Africa) in historical archaeology and also specializes in archival and deeds research.  In addition to considerable experience in the above fields, she also acted as Field Director for CHARM during excavations of coastal shell midden sites on South Africa’s south coast.  See more about Harriet on 


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