Richard G. Klein


Archaeologist – Anthropologist – Faunal Specialist – Human Evolution

Richard’s work is highly influentual in, among others, archaeological and palaeontological circles around the world.  His methodologies developed for the analysis of animal bones from archaeological sites are in use since the early 1980’s.

Richard in the field on the West coast of the Western Cape, South Africa. No matter what the occasion, this is Richard's style.

Richard writes; “My primary interest is in the co-evolution of anatomy and behavior in human evolution.  My research is mainly on ancient animal remains as indicators of early human ability to make a living.  I have analyzed more than 100 assemblages of animal fossils, primarily from southern African archaeological sites dating between 700,000 years ago and the historic present.  I am currently directing excavations at a site 70 km NNW of Cape Town that dates from the Last Interglacial interval, between roughly 115,000 and 70,000 years ago.  The animal remains show that the inhabitants exploited coastal resources much less efficiently than people who occupied the same coast during Present Interglacial (Holocene). The change in foraging efficiency probably occurred about 50,000 years ago and it helps explain the simultaneous expansion of anatomically modern humans from Africa to Eurasia, where they replaced the Neanderthals and other non-modern Eurasians.”

The below is Richard’s “medium vita”.  When I opened the below file, I could not help wondering what the “high vita” looks like.



Richard G. Klein, Curriculum Vitae, 1 January 2010

Address: Program in Human Biology, Building 20, Inner Quad, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2160

Phone: Office 1 (650) 725-9819; Home 1 (650) 852-0775; Mobile 1 (650) 575-5643


Place of Birth: Chicago, Illinois

Marital Status: Married (Gail Ann Christensen Klein)

Degrees:  A. B., University of Michigan, 1962.

M. A., University of Chicago, 1964.

Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1966.

Positions Held:

Sept. 1966 – June 1967                Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Sept. 1967 – Aug. 1969                 Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Northwestern University

Sept. 1969 – Aug. 1973                 Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Washington

Sept. 1973 – Aug. 1977                 Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago

Sept. 1977 – June 1993                Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago

July 1993 – Sept. 2007                  Professor of Anthropology, Stanford University

Dec. 2002 – present                       Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University

Sept. 2007 – present                      Professor of Biology and Anthropology, Stanford University

Research Interests: Interrelation of cultural, biological, and environmental change in human evolution; Reconstruction of environment, ecology, and human behavior from animal remains in archeological sites.

Geographic Research Area: southern Africa.

Books (Authored):

2009      The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins.  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.  Third Edition.

2002      The Dawn of Human Culture.  New York: John Wiley & Sons (with Blake Edgar).

1999      The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins.  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.  Second Edition.

1989      The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins.  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

1984      The Analysis of Animal Bones from Archeological Sites .  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.  (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1973      Ice-Age Hunters of the Ukraine.  Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

1969      Man and Culture in the Late Pleistocene: A Case Study.  San Francisco, Chandler.

Books (Edited):

1999      Archaeozoology in Africa (with Ina Plug).  Grenoble, La Pensée Sauvage.

1984      Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. (with P. S. Martin).  Tucson, University of Arizona Press.

1984      Southern African Prehistory and Paleoenvironments.  Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema.


in press Large mammals and tortoises.  In (Parkington, J. E., ed.) Elands Bay Cave: A View of the Past, Chapter 7.  Tübingen Series in Palaeolithic Studies: in press. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

2010      Eland, buffalo, and wild pigs: are they equally abundant in Middle and Later Stone Age sites?  Journal of Human Evolution: in press (with T. D. Weaver and T. E. Steele).

2010      Morphometric identification of bovid metapodials to genus and implications for taxon-free habitat reconstruction. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 389-401 (with R. G. Franciscus and T. E. Steele).

2009      Darwin and the recent African origin of modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (38): 16007–16009.

2009      Mogapelwa:  Archaeology, paleoenvironment and oral traditions at Lake Ngami, Botswana.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 64 (189): 13–32. (with L.H. Robbins,  A. C. Campbell,   M. L. Murphy, G. A. Brook,  A. A. Mabuse,  R. K. Hitchcock,  G. Babutsi,  M. Mmolawa,  K.M. Stewart,  Teresa E. Steele, and C. C. Appleton).

2009      Late Pleistocene subsistence strategies and resource intensification in Africa.  In (Hublin, J.-J. and Richards, M. P., eds).  The Evolution of Hominid Diets: Integrating Approaches to the Study of Palaeolithic Subsistence: 111-124.  New York: Springer Publishing (with T. E. Steele).

2009      Hominin dispersals in the Old World.  In (Scarre, C. Ed.) The Human Past: World Prehistory & the Development of Human Societies, Second Edition, 84-123.  London: Thames & Hudson.

2008      Out of Africa and the evolution of human behavior.  Evolutionary Anthropology 17 (6): 267-281.

2008      The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age Rockshelter and the evolution of coastal foraging.  South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 10: 66-89 (with G. Avery, D. Halkett, M. Tusenius, J. Orton, and T. E. Steele).

2008      Intertidal shellfish Use during the Middle and Later Stone Age of South Africa.  Archaeofauna 17: 63-76 (with T. E. Steele).

2007      The mammalian fauna associated with a fossil hominin skull and later Acheulean artifacts at Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.  Journal of Human Evolution 52: 164-186. (with Graham Avery, Kathryn Cruz-Uribe, and Teresa Steele).

2005/06 Mollusk and tortoise size as proxies for stone age population density in South Africa: implications for the evolution of human cultural capacity.  Munibe 57: 221-237 (with T. E. Steele).

2005      The evolution of human walking.  In (Rose, J. and Gamble, J. G., Eds.) Human Walking: 23-32.  Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams  & Wilkins (with T. D. Weaver).

2005      Hominin dispersals in the Old World.  In (Scarre, C. Ed.) The Human Past: World Prehistory & the Development of Human Societies: 84-123.  London: Thames & Hudson.

2004      Tortoises as food and taphonomic elements in palaeo “landscapes”.  In (Brugal, J.-Ph. And Desse, J. Eds.) Petits Animaux et Sociétés Humains: Du complement alimentaire aux resources utilitaires: 147-161.  Antibes: Editions APOCA (with G. Avery, A. W. Kandel, N.J. Conard, and K. Cruz-Uribe).

2004      The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal  resources.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 5708-5715.  (with G, Avery,  D. Halkett,  J. E. Parkington, T. E. Steele, T. P. Volman and R. Yates).

2003      First Excavation of Intact Middle Stone Age Layers at Ysterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa: Implications for Middle Stone Age Ecology. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 955-971 (with G. Avery, K. Cruz-Uribe, D. Halkett, T. Hart, J. Orton, J. E. Parkington, T. P. Volman, and R. Yates).

2003      Excavation of buried Late Acheulean (Mid-Quaternary) land Surfaces at Duinefontein 2, Western Cape Province, South Africa.  Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 559-575  (with G. Avery, M. Avery, K. Cruz-Uribe, D. Halkett, T. Hart, R. G. Milo, and T. P. Volman).

2003      Whither the Neanderthals?  Science 299: 1525-1527.

2002      Foreword to The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Ya’akov, Israel: The Wood Assemblage by Naama Goren-Inbar, Ella Werker, and Craig S. Feibel, pp. vii-viii.  Oxford: Oxbow Books.

2002      The origin of modern humans.  In (Pagel, Mark, Ed.) Encyclopedia of Evolution, pp. 738-740.  New York: Oxford University Press.

2002      Foreword to Desolate Landscapes: Ice-Age Settlements in Eastern Europe by John F. Hoffecker, pp. xv-xvi.  New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

2001      Fully modern humans.  In (Price, T. D., and Feinman, G., eds.)  Archaeology at the Millennium, pp. 109-135.  New York: Plenum Press.

2001      Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa: Preliminary Report on the 1992 – 1999 Excavations of the Middle Stone Age Levels.  Journal of Archaeological Science 28: 421-448 (with C. S. Henshilwood, J. C. Sealy, R. Yates, K. Cruz-Uribe, P. Goldberg, F. E. Grine, C. Poggenpoel, K. van Niekerk,  and I. Watts).

2001      Southern Africa and modern human origins.  Journal of Anthropological Research 57: 1-16.

2000      The Earlier Stone Age of Southern Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 27: 107-122.

2000      Macromammals and reptiles.  In (Barham, L., ed.) The Middle Stone Age of Zambia, South Central Africa, 51-56.  Bristol: Western Academic & Specialist Press (with Kathryn Cruz-Uribe).

2000      Archaeology, paleoenvironment, and chronology of the Tsodilo Hills White Paintings Rock Shelter, northwest Kalahari Desert, Botswana.  Journal of Archaeological Science 27: 1085-1113. (with L. H. Robbins, M. L. Murphy, G. A. Brook, A. H. Ivester, R. G. Milo, K. M. Stewart, W. S. Downey, and N. J. Stevens).

2000      L’art et-il né d’une mutation génétique?  La Recherche Hor-Série 4 (Novembre 2000): 18-21.  (Reprinted 2005 in Homo sapiens: l’Odyssée de l’Espèce, pp. 219-226.  Paris, Tallandier; 2006 in La Naissance de l’Art.  Paris, Tallandier).

2000      Human evolution and large mammal extinctions.  In (Vrba, E. S. and Schaller, G. S. eds.) Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives, Present and Future: Fossil Record, Behavioral Ecology, Systematics, and Conservation, pp. 128-139. New Haven: Yale University Press.

2000      Archeology and the evolution of human behavior.  Evolutionary Anthropology 9(1):  17-36.

2000      Middle and Later Stone Age large mammal and tortoise remains from Die Kelders Cave 1, Western Cape Province, South Africa Journal of Human Evolution 38: 169-195. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

2000      Middle Stone Age stratigraphy and excavations at Die Kelders Cave 1 (Western Cape province, South Africa): the 1992, 1993, and 1995 field seasons. Journal of Human Evolution 38: 7-42 (with C. W. Marean, P. Goldberg, G. Avery, and F. E. Grine)

1999      Fur seal bones reveal variability in prehistoric human seasonal movements on the southwest African coast.  ArchaeoZoologia 10: 181-188 (with K. Cruz-Uribe and J. D. Skinner).

1999      Paleoenvironmental and human behavioral implications of the Boegoeberg 1 late Pleistocene hyena den, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research 52: 393-403 (with K. Cruz-Uribe, T. Hart, D. Halkett, and J. E. Parkington).

1999      Skeletal part representation in archaeofaunas: Comments on “Explaining the ‘Klasies Pattern’: Kua Ethnoarchaeology, the Die Kelders Middle Stone Age archaeofauna, long bone fragmentation and carnivore ravaging” by Bartram and Marean.  Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 1225-1234. (with K. Cruz-Uribe and R. G. Milo)

1999      Duinefontein 2: an Acheulean site in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.  Journal of Human Evolution 36: 153-190. (with G. Avery, K. Cruz-Uribe, D. Halkett, T. Hart, R. G. Milo, and T. P. Volman).

1999      Craniometry of the genus Equus and the Taxonomic Affinities of the Extinct South African Quagga.  South African Journal of Science 95(2): 81-86 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1998      Why anatomically modern humans did not disperse from Africa 100,000 years ago.  In (Bar-Yosef, O., Akazawa, A., and Aoki, K., eds.)  Neanderthals and Modern Humans in West Asia, pp. 509-521.  New York: Plenum Press.

1998      Additional human fossils from Klasies River Mouth, South Africa.  Journal of Human Evolution 35 (1): 95-107. (with F. E. Grine, O. M. Pearson, and G. P. Rightmire).

1998      Hyrax and hare bones from modern South African eagle roosts and the detection of eagle involvement in fossil assemblages. Journal of Archaeological Science 25: 135-147 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1997      The 1992-93 Excavations at the Die Kelders Middle and Late Stone Age Cave Site, South Africa. Journal of Field Archaeology 24(3): 263-291.  (with G. Avery, K.Cruz-Uribe, P. Goldberg, F. E. Grine, C. W. Marean, H. P. Schwarcz, A. I. Thackeray, and M. L. Wilson.)

1996      Exploitation of large bovids and seals at Middle and Later Stone Age sites in South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 31: 315-334. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1996      Size variation in the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) and late Quaternary climatic change in South Africa.  Quaternary Research 46: 193-207. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1996      Neanderthals and modern humans in West Asia: a conference summary.  Evolutionary Anthropology 4 (6): 187-193.

1996      Observations on the Acheulean occupation site of Ambrona (Soria Province, Spain) with particular reference to recent investigations (1980-1983) and the lower occupation.  Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 38, 33-82. (with F. C. Howell, K. W. Butzer, and L. G. Freeman.)

1996      Prehistoric human adaptation to Last and Present Interglacial conditions on the southern coast of Africa.  Abstracts of the Fourteenth Biennial Meeting of the American Quaternary Association: 16-18.

1996      The identification of Equus skulls to species, with particular reference to the craniometric and systematic affinities of the extinct South African quagga.  In (K. Stewart and K. Seymour, Eds.) Palaeoecology and Palaeoenvironments of Late Cenozoic Mammals: Tributes to the Career of C. S. (Rufus) Churcher, pp. 598-629.  Toronto, University of Toronto Press. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1996      Paleoenvironment and archaeology of Drotsky’s Cave: Western Kalahari Desert, Botswana.  Journal of Archaeological Science 22, 7-22. (with L. H. Robbins, M. L. Murphy, N. J. Stevens, G. A. Brook, A. H. Ivester, K. A. Haberyan, R. G. Milo, K. M. Stewart, D. G. Matthiesen, and A. J. Winkler.)

1995      Anatomy, behavior, and modern human origins. Journal of World Prehistory 9: 167-198.

1995      The Tor Hamar Fauna.  In (D. O. Henry Ed.) Prehistoric Cultural Ecology and Evolution: Insights from Southern Jordan.  New York: Plenum Press, pp. 405-416.

1995      Anthropology (Update).  Science Year, 200-202.  Chicago, World Book Corporation.

1995      Dating and context of three Middle Stone Age sites with bone points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire.  Science 268, 548-553.  (with A. S. Brooks. D. M. Helgren,  J. S. Cramer, A. Franklin, W. Hornyak, J. Keating, W. J. Rink, H. Schwarcz,  J. N. Leith Smith, K. Stewart,  N. E. Todd, J. Verniers, and J. E. Yellen).

1994      The long-horned African buffalo (Pelorovis antiquus) is an extinct species.  Journal of Archaeological Science 21, 725-733.

1994      Anthropology (Update).  Science Year, pp. 208-211.  Chicago, World Book Corporation.

1994      The Paleolithic mammalian fauna from the 1910-14 excavations at El Castillo Cave (Cantabria).  Festschrift for Joaquín González Echegaray.  Centro de Investigacion y Museo de Altamira, Monografiyas 17, 141-158. (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1994      Southern Africa before the Iron Age.  In (R. S. Corruccini & R. L. Ciochon, Eds.) Integrative Paths to the Past: Paleoanthropological Advances in Honor of F. Clark Howell, pp. 471-519.  Englewood Cliffs (N. J.): Prentice-Hall.

1994      Chew marks and cut marks on animal bones from the Kasteelberg B and Dune Field Midden Later Stone Age sites, western Cape Province, South Africa.  Journal of Archaeological Science 21, 35-49.  (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1994      An introduction to the problem of modern human origins.  In (M. H. Nitecki and V. Nitecki, Eds.) Origins of Anatomically Modern Human, pp. 3-17.  New York, Plenum Press.

1993      The ecological and archeological significance of rock hyrax bones from modern eagle roosts in South Africa.  In (A. T. Clason, S. Payne, and  H.-P. Uerpmann, Eds.), pp. 117-134.   Skeletons in her Cupboard.  Festchrift for Juliet Clutton-Brock.  Oxbow Monograph 34.  Oxford: Oxbow Books.  (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1993      Anthropology (Update).  Science Year, pp. 205-208.  Chicago, World Book Corporation.

1993      Hunter-gatherers and farmers in Africa.  In (Burenhult, G., Ed.)  People of the Stone Age: Hunter Gatherers and Early Farmers, 39-55.  San Francisco, HarperCollins.

1993      Late Pleistocene Human Remains from the Sea Harvest Site, Saldanha Bay, South Africa.  The South African Journal of Science 89: 145-152 (with F. E. Grine).

1992      The impact of early people on their environment: the case of large mammal extinctions.  In (J. E. Jacobsen & J. Firor, Eds.) Human Impact on the  Environment: Ancient Roots, Current Challenges, pp. 13-34.   Boulder (Colorado), Westview Press.

1992      The archeology of modern human origins.  Evolutionary Anthropology 1: 5-14.

1992      Anthropology (Update).  Science Year, pp. 231-233.  Chicago, World Book Corporation.

1991      Dating, archaeology and human fossils from the Middle Stone Age Layers of Die Kelders Cave 1, South Africa.  The Journal of Human Evolution 21: 363-395 (with F. E. Grine & T. P. Volman.)

1991      The bovids from Elandsfontein, South Africa, and their implications for the age, paleoenvironment, and origins of the site.  The African Archaeological Review 9: 21-79. (with K. Cruz-Uribe.)

1991      Size variation in the Cape Dune Molerat (Bathyergus suillus) and Late Quaternary climatic change in the Southwestern Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research. 36: 243-256.

1991      Environmental, ecological, and paleoanthropological implications of the Late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Equus Cave, northern Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research 36: 94-119 (with K. Cruz-Uribe & P. B. Beaumont.)

1989      Faunal Evidence for Prehistoric Herder-Forager Activities at Kasteelberg, Vredenburg Peninsula, western Cape Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 44: 82-97 (with K. Cruz-Uribe.)

1989      Biological and behavioural perspectives on modern human origins in southern Africa.  In (P. Mellars & C. Stringer, Eds.) The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans: 529-546.  Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.

1989      Why does skeletal part representation differ between smaller and larger bovids at Klasies River Mouth and other archeological sites?  Journal of Archaeological Science 16: 363-381.

1989      Glacial/interglacial size variation in fossil spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) from Britain.  Quaternary Research 32: 88-95 (with K. Scott).

1988      The causes of “robust” australopithecine extinction.  In (F. E. Grine, Ed.) The Evolutionary History of the Robust Australopithecines: 499-505.  New York, Aldine de Gruyter.

1988      The archaeological significance of animal bones from Acheulean sites in southern Africa.  The African Archaeological Review 6: 3-26.

1988      Dimensions of research at El Juyo (an earlier Magdalenian site in Cantabrian Spain).  In (H. Dibble, & A. Montet-White, Eds.) Upper Pleistocene Prehistory of Western Eurasia: 3-39.  Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Museum (with L. G. Freeman, J. González Echegaray & W. T. Crowe.)

1987      Excavaciones en la Cueva del Juyo.  Centro de Investigacion y Museo de Altamira, Monografiyas 14: 1-224 (with I. Barandiarán, L. G. Freeman & J. González Echegaray).

1987      Problems and prospects in understanding how early people exploited animals.  In (M. H. Nitecki & D. V. Nitecki, Eds.)  Evolution of Human Hunting: 11-45.  New York, Plenum Press.

1987      The extinct blue antelope.  Sagittarius 2(3): 20-23.

1987      Paleolithic.  McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (Sixth Edition) Vol. 13: 47-51.  New York, McGraw-Hill.

1987      Large mammal and tortoise bones from Elands Bay Cave and nearby sites, Western Cape Province, South Africa.  Papers in the Prehistory of the Western Cape, South Africa (J. E. Parkington & M. Hall, Eds.)  British Archaeological Reports International Series 332: 132-163 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1986      Carnivore size and Quaternary climatic change in southern Africa.  Quaternary Research 25: 153-170.

1986      Re-analysis of faunal assemblages from the Haua Fteah and other Late Quaternary sites in Cyrenaican Libya.  Journal of Archaeological Science 13: 515-542 (with K. Scott.)

1986      The brown hyaenas of the Cape Flats.  Sagittarius 1(4): 8-13.

1986      The prehistory of stone age herders in the Cape Province of South Africa.  South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 5: 5-12.

1986      Pascal programs for computing taxonomic abundance in samples of fossil mammals.  Journal of Archaeological Science 13: 171-187 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1985      Pleistocene and Holocene human remains from Equus Cave, South Africa.  Anthropology 8: 55-98 (with F. E. Grine).

1985      Ancestors: Breaking Away (“Even in its infancy, modern humanity displayed a talent for innovation.”)  Natural History 94(1): 4-7.

1984      The prehistory of stone age herders in South Africa.  In (J. D. Clark & S. Brandt, Eds.) From Hunters to Farmers: The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa: 281-289.  Berkeley, University of California Press.

1984      Later Stone Age faunal samples from Heuningsneskrans Shelter (Transvaal) and Leopard’s Hill Cave (Zambia).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 39: 109-116.

1984      The remains of larger mammals from Fairview Shelter.  Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums (Human Sciences) 1(3): 82-86.

1984      The large mammals of southern Africa: late Pliocene to Recent.  In (R. G. Klein, Ed.) Southern African Prehistory and Paleoenvironments: 107-146.  Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema.

1984      Mammalian extinctions and stone age people in Africa.  In (P. S. Martin & R. G. Klein, Eds.) Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution: 553-573.  Tucson, University of Arizona Press.

1983      Stone age population numbers and average tortoise size at Byneskranskop Cave 1 and Die Kelders Cave 1, Southern Cape Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 38: 26-30 (with K. Cruz-Uribe)

1983      Palaeoenvironmental implications of Quaternary large mammals in the Fynbos Biome.  South African National Scientific Programmes Reports 75: 116-138.

1983      The Stone Age prehistory of Southern Africa.  Annual Review of Anthropology 12: 25-48.

1983      Faunal remains from some Middle and Later Stone Age archaeological sites in South West Africa.  Journal of the South West African Scientific Society 36/37: 91-114 (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

1983      A stone age sanctuary.  Natural History 92(8): 46-53 (with L. G. Freeman & J. González Echegaray.)

1983      The computation of ungulate age (mortality) profiles from dental crown heights.  Paleobiology 9: 70-78 (with K. Cruz-Uribe.)

1983      Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon Man: What do we really know about them?  American Scholar 52(3): 386-392.

1983      The calculation and interpretation of ungulate age profiles from dental crown heights.  In (G. Bailey, Ed.) Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory: A European Perspective: 47-57.  Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (with K. Allwarden & C. Wolf).

1982      Age (mortality) profiles as a means of distinguishing hunted species from scavenged ones in stone age archeological sites.  Paleobiology 8: 151-158.

1982      Patterns of ungulate mortality and ungulate mortality profiles from Langebaanweg (early Pliocene) and Elandsfontein (middle Pleistocene), southwestern Cape Province, South Africa.  Annals of the South African Museum 90: 49-94.

1981      Later Stone Age subsistence at Byeneskranskop Cave, South Africa.  In (R. S. O. Harding & G. Teleki, Eds.) Omnivorous Primates: Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution: 166-190.  New York, Columbia University Press.

1981      Ungulate mortality and sedimentary facies in the late Tertiary Varswater Formation, Langebaanweg, South-Western Cape Province, South Africa.  Annals of the South African Museum 81: 233-254.

1981      A hyaena-accumulated bone assemblage from late Holocene deposits at Deelpan, Orange Free State.  Annals of the South African Museum 86: 217-227 (with L. Scott.)

1981      Stone Age predation on small African bovids.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 36: 55-65.

1981      The use of dental crown heights for constructing age profiles of red deer and similar species in archaeological samples.  Journal of Archaeological Science 8: 1-31 (with C. Wolf, L. G.  Freeman & K. Allwarden).

1980      Late Pleistocene hunters.  In (A. Sheratt, Ed.) The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Archaeology: 87-95.  Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

1980      Larger Mammals (from Driel Shelter, Natal).  Annals of the Natal Museum 24: 62-67.

1980      Environmental and ecological implications of large mammals from Upper Pleistocene and Holocene sites in southern Africa.  Annals of the South African Museum 81: 223-283.

1979      Stone age exploitation of animals in southern Africa.  American Scientist 67: 151-160.

1979      Paleoenvironmental and cultural implications of late Holocene archeological faunas from the Orange Free State and north-central Cape Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 34: 34-49.

1979      Mammals (from Diana’s Vow, Zimbabwe).  Occasional Papers of the National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia 4(4): 147-148.

1978      Preliminary results of the analysis of the mammalian fauna from the Redcliff Stone Age cave site, Rhodesia.  Occasional Papers of the National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia 4(2): 74-80.

1978      The fauna and overall interpretation of the “Cutting 10″ Acheulean site at Elandsfontein (Hopefield), south-western Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research 10: 69-83.

1978      Stone Age predation on large African bovids.  Journal of Archaeological Science 5: 195-217.

1978      A preliminary report on the mammalian fauna from the Boomplaas Stone Age Cave site, Oudtshoorn District, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 33: 66-75.

1978      The vertebrate fauna from the Buffelskloof Rock Shelter.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 33: 35-38.

1977      The ecology of early man in southern Africa.  Science 197: 115-126.

1977      The mammalian fauna from the Middle and Later Stone Age (later Pleistocene) levels of Border Cave, Natal Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 32: 14-27.

1976      The mammalian fauna of the Klasies River Mouth sites, southern Cape Province, South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 31: 75-98.

1976      The interpretation of mammalian faunas from stone age archaeological sites, with special reference to sites in the southern Cape Province, South Africa.  Paper presented at Burg Wartenstein Symposium No. 69 [published 1980 in (A. K. Behrensmeyer & A. Hill, Eds.) Fossils in the Making: 223-246. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.)

1976      Cultural adaptations to Pleistocene “steppe tundras” in the Old World.  Abstracts of the Fourth Biennial Meeting of the American Quaternary Association: 90-91.

1976      The fossil history of Raphicerus H. Smith, 1827 (Bovidae, Mammalia) in the Cape Biotic Zone.  Annals of the South African Museum 71: 169-191.

1976      A preliminary report on the Duinefontein 2 “Middle Stone Age” open-air site (Melkbosstrand, South-Western Cape Province, South Africa).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 31: 12-20.

1975      Paleoanthropological implications of the non-archeological bone assemblage from Swartklip 1, south-western Cape Province, South Africa.  Quaternary Research 5: 275-288.

1975      Ecology of stone age man at the southern tip of Africa. Archaeology 28: 238-247.  [Reprinted 1978 in (P. Whitten & D. E. Hunter, Eds.) Readings in Physical Anthropology and Archaeology: 137-146.  New York, Harper & Row].

1975      Middle Stone Age man-animal relationships in southern Africa: evidence from Klasies River Mouth and Die Kelders.  Science 190: 265-267.

1975      The relevance of Old World archeology for the first entry of man into the New World.  Quaternary Research 5: 391-394.

1974      Ice-age Hunters of the Ukraine.  Scientific American 230(6): 96-105.  [Reprinted in (B. M. Fagan, Ed.) Avenues to Antiquity: 66-75.  San Francisco, W. H. Freeman & Co.]

1974      The fauna of Scott’s Cave, Gamtoos Valley, southeastern Cape.  South African Journal of Science 70: 186-187 (with K. Scott).

1974      Environment and subsistence of prehistoric man in the southern Cape Province, South Africa.  World Archaeology 5: 249-284.

1974      On the taxonomic status, distribution, and ecology of the blue antelope, Hippotragus leucophaeus (Pallas, 1776).  Annals of the South African Museum 65: 99-143.

1974      A provisional statement on terminal Pleistocene mammalian extinctions in the Cape Biotic Zone (southern Cape Province, South Africa).  South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 2: 39-45.

1973      Geological antiquity of Rhodesian Man.  Nature 244: 311-312.

1972      A preliminary report on the June through September 1970 excavations at Nelson Bay Cave (Cape Province, South Africa).  Palaeoecology of Africa 6: 177-208.

1972      The late Quaternary mammalian fauna of Nelson Bay Cave (Cape Province, South Africa): its implications for megafaunal extinctions and for cultural and environmental change.  Quaternary Research 2: 135-142.

1971      The Pleistocene prehistory of Siberia.  Quaternary Research 1: 133-161.

1971      U.S.S.R.  In (K. P. Oakley, B. G. Campbell & T. Molleson, Eds.) Catalogue of Fossil Hominids Part II: Europe: 313-335.  British Museum (Natural History), London (with I. K. Ivanova and G. F. Debets).

1970      The Mousterian of European Russia.  Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 25: 77-112.

1970      Problems in the study of the Middle Stone Age of South Africa.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 25: 127-134.

1969      El hombre del Pleistoceno en el litoral oriental del Mar Negro.  Ampurias 29: 1-23.

1969      Mousterian cultures in European Russia.  Science 165: 257-265.

1967      Radiocarbon dates on occupation sites of Pleistocene age in the U.S.S.R.  Arctic Anthropology 4: 224-225.

1966      Chellean and Acheulean on the territory of the Soviet Union.  American Anthropologist 68(2,2): 1-45.

1965      The Middle Paleolithic of the Crimea.  Arctic Anthropology 3: 34-68.

Reviews, Letters, and Abstracts:

In press  “Elandsfontein” and “Nelson Bay Cave” for the Catalogue of Southern African Fossil Hominids (P. V. Tobias, ed.).  Brussels: Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences.  In press.

2009      Animals and People: Archaeozoological Papers in Honour of Ina Plug. (Badenhorst, Shaw, Mitchell, Peter, Driver, Jonathan C., editors).   BAR International Series 1849.  South African Archaeological Bulletin 64: in press.

2009      Spreeuwal: an Upper Pleistocene Wetland on the Western Cape Coast, South Africa.  Southern African Society for Quaternary Research Abstracts 2009: 11 (With G. Avery and K. Cruz-Uribe).

2009      Eland, Buffalo, and Wild Pigs: Are They Equally Abundant in Middle and Later Stone Age Sites?  Paleoanthropology 2009: A20 (with Tim Weaver and Teresa Steele).

2008      Gibraltar data are too sparse to inform on Neanderthal exploitation of coastal resource Gibraltar data are too sparse to inform on Neanderthal exploitation of coastal resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (51): E115 (with T. E. Steele)

2007      The Chosen Species: The Long March of Human Evolution (Juan Luis Arsuaga and Ignacio Martínez).  Quarterly Review of Biology 82: 307-308.

2007      “Shell artefact production at 32,000-28,000 BP in island Southeast Asia” by Katherine Szabó, Adam Brumm, and Peter Bellwood.  Current Anthropology 48: 716-717.

2006      “The Lower/Middle Paleolithic periodization in western Europe” by Gilliane F. Monnier.  Current Anthropology 47(5): 730-731

2006      “Ahead of the Game: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Hunting Behaviors in the Southern Caucasus” by D. S. Adler et al.  Current Anthropology 47 (1): 108-109.

2004      Principles of Human Evolution (Second Edition) (Roger Lewin and Robert A. Foley).  Quarterly Review of Biology 79: 339.

2004      Neanderthals and Modern Humans: An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective  (C. Finlyason).  Science 305: 45.

2003      “The origin of modern human behavior: critique of the models and their test implications” by Christopher S. Henshilwood and Curtis W. Marean.  Current Anthropology 44(5): 640-641.

2003      “An early case of color symbolism:  ochre use by modern humans in Qafzeh Cave” by Erella Hovers et al.  Current Anthropology 44: 512-513.

2002      Settlement Dynamics of the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age (N. J. Conard, ed.).  Journal of Human Evolution 42: 785-786.

2002      Kalambo Falls Prehistoric Site Volume III ( J. D.. Clark).  Quarterly Review of Biology, 77: 195.

2002      Middle Pleistocene paleoenvironments of hominid sites in the Western Cape. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Supp. 34: 58-58.  (with K. Cruz-Uribe).

2001      Humanity from African Naissance to Coming Millennia (P. V. Tobias, M. A. Raath, J. Moggi-Cecchi & G. A. Doyle, eds).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 65:110-111.

2001      The Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory (E. Delson, I. Tattersall, J. A. Van Couvering, and A. S. Brooks, eds).  Quarterly Review of Biology 76: 532-533.

1999      Zooarchaeology (E. J. Reitz and E. S. Wing).  Journal of Anthropological Research: 55: 612-614.

1999      Human Beginnings in South Africa: Uncovering the Secrets of the Stone Age (H. J. Deacon and Janette Deacon).  South African Archaeological Bulletin: 54:149-150.

1999      Conceptual Issues in Modern Human Origins Research (G. A. Clark and C. M. Willermet, Eds.).  American Journal of Human Biology 11: 81.

1998      “Mousterian large-mammal remains from Kobeh Cave: behavioral implications for Neanderthals and early modern humans” (C. W. Marean and S. Y. Kim).  Current Anthropology 39: S96-S97.

1997      Race and Human Evolution: The Fatal Attraction (M. H. Wolpoff and R. Caspari).  Quarterly Review of Biology 72: 356.

1996      The Neanderthal Legacy: An Archaeological Perspective from Western Europe (P. A. Mellars).  Science 272, 822-823.

1995      Naming our Ancestors: An Anthology of Hominid Taxonomy (W. E. Meikle and S. T. Taylor, Eds.).  Quarterly Review of Biology 70:114.

1995      Honor Among Thieves: A Zooarchaeological Study of Neanderthal Ecology (M. C. Stiner).  Science 267: 1843-1844.

1994      Chimpanzee Material Culture: Implications for Human Evolution (W. C. McGrew).  Quarterly Review of Biology 69: 428-429..

1994      From Bones to Behavior: Ethnoarchaeologial and Experimental Contributions to the Interpretation of Faunal Remains (J. Hudson, Ed.)  American Antiquity 59: 565-566.

1994      The Origin of Modern Humans and the Impact of Chronometric Dating (M. J. Aitken, C. B. Stringer, and P. A. Mellars, Eds.).  International Journal of Primatology: 15: 327-329.

1993      The Origin and Evolution of Humans and Humanness (D. Tab Rasmussen, Ed.).  American Journal of Human Biology 5(5): 590-591.

1993      Before Lascaux: The Complex Record of the Early Upper Paleolithic (H. Knecht, A. Pike-Tay, and R. White, Eds.).  Science 262: 1751-1752.

1993      Making Silent Stones Speak: Human Evolution and the Dawn of Technology  (Kathy D. Schick and Nicholas Toth). Anthroquest 47, 16.

1993      The Human Evolution Source Book (R. Ciochon and J. Fleagle, Eds.).  Quarterly Review of Biology: 68: 467.

1993      The Middle Paleolithic: Adaptation, Behavior and Variability (H. L. Dibble and P. Mellars, Eds.). Journal of Field Archaeology 20, 237-240.

1993      Prehistory: The World of Early Man (J. Guilaine, Ed.).  Quarterly Review of Biology 68: 310.

1992      Contribution to the Archaeozoology of Central Africa (W. van Neer).  Palaeoecology of Africa 23: 215-220.

1992      A quarter century of paleoanthropology: views from the USA (L. G. Straus, ed.).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 47, 136-137.

1992      Narratives of Human Evolution (M. Landau).  Quarterly Review of Biology 67: 86-87.

1987      Stone Age Prehistory: Studies in Memory of Charles McBurney (G. N. Bailey & P. Callow, Eds.).  Antiquity 61: 142.

1987      Quantitative Zooarchaeology.  Topics in the Analysis of Archaeological Faunas (D. K. Grayson).  Quarterly Review of Archaeology 8(2): 8-9.

1987      Teeth (S. Hillson).  American Scientist 75: 645.

1986      The Omo Micromammals: Systematics and Paleoecology of Early Man Sites from Ethiopia (H. B. Wesselman).  American Anthropologist 88: 231-232.

1986      Faunal Remains from Klasies River Mouth (L. R. Binford).  American Anthropologist: 88: 494-495.

1986      “Systematic butchery by Plio/Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania” (H. T. Bunn & E. M. Kroll).  Current Anthropology 27(5): 446-447.

1986      The Upper Paleolithic of the Central Russian Plain (O. Soffer).  Journal of Human Evolution 15: 827-828.

1985      Hominid Evolution and Community Ecology (R. Foley, Ed.). Nature 315: 609.

1985      The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (F. H. Smith & F. Spencer, Eds.). Human Biology 57: 489-491.

1983      Ecology of Desert Organisms (G. Louw & M. Seely).  Choice 20: 1014.

1983      Paleoecology of Beringia (D. M. Hopkins, J. V. Matthews, Jr., C. E. Schweger & S. B. Young, Eds.)  Science 220: 1226-1227.

1983      The Lower and Middle Palaeolithic Periods of Britain (D. Roe).  Quaternary Research 15: 254-255.

1982      Rock Shelters of the Perigord (H. Laville, J.-Ph. Rigaud & J. Sackett).  Journal of Archaeological Science 85: 307-308.

1982      The Hunters or the Hunted? (C. K. Brain). Paleobiology 8: 171-175.

1982      Environmental Archaeology (M. Shackley).  American Scientist: 544-545.

1982      The Environment in British Prehistory (I. Simmons & M. Tooley, Eds.)  American Antiquity 47: 904.

1981      Prehistory of the Eastern Sahara (F. Wendorf & R. Schild).  American Anthropologist 83: 666-668.

1980      European Prehistory (S. Milisauskas).  American Antiquity 45: 209-210.

1980      Reindeer and Caribou Hunters: An Archaeological Study (A. E. Spiess).  Science 207: 632.

1980      Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains (G. Frison).  Journal of Archaeological Science 7: 103-104.

1980      Paleonutrition (E. Wing and A. Brown).  Journal of Archaeological Science 7: 393-394.

1979      Olorgesailie: Archaeological Studies of a Middle Pleistocene Lake Basin in Kenya (G. Ll. Isaac).  American Anthropologist 81: 148-150.

1979      Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology (L. R. Binford).  Journal of Archaeological Science 6: 207.

1979      La Préhistoire Française (H. de Lumley & J. Guilaine, Eds.). Quaternary Research 12: 156-157.

1979      The Emergence of Man (J. E. Pfeiffer).  The Quarterly Review of Biology 54: 213.

1978      Early Man in the Soviet Union: The Implications of some Recent Discoveries (C.B.M. McBurney).  Antiquity 52: 61-62.

1977      Where Hunters Gathered (H. J. Deacon).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 32: 93-96.

1976      Paleoanthropology, Morphology and Paleoecology (R. H. Tuttle, Ed.).  Quarterly Review of Biology 51: 558.

1975      Northeast Asia in Prehistory (C. S. Chard).  Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 35: 286-290.

1973      Environment and Archaeology (2nd Edition) (K. W. Butzer).  The Professional Geographer 25: 291-292.

1972      Atlas of Animal Bones (E. Schmid).  Quaternary Research 2: 258.

1972      The Study of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites (R. E. Chaplin).  South African Archaeological Bulletin 27: 94.

1971      Prehistoric Russia: An Outline (T. Sulimirski).  American Anthropologist 73: 1422-1423.

1970      Human Origins: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology (T. W. McKern & S. McKern).  American Anthropologist 72: 710-711.

1969      “Evolution of Palaeolithic in Central and Eastern Europe” (K. Valoch).  Current Anthropology 9: 376.

1969      La Station Paléolithique d’Erd–Hongrie (V. Gabori-Czank). American Anthropologist 71: 1219-1223.

1969      Kak vozniklo chelovechestvo (How Mankind Originated) (Yu. V. Semenov).  American Anthropologist 71: 343-344.

1969      “Cultural traditions and environment of early man” (D. Collins).  Current Anthropology 10: 307.

1969      “Neanderthal Man and Homo sapiens in Central and Eastern Europe” (J. Jelinek).  Current Anthropology 10: 493-495.

1967      Izobrazheniya cheloveka v paleoliticheskom isskustve Evrazii (Portrayals of man in the Paleolithic Art of Eurasia) (Z. A. Abramova).  American Anthropologist 69: 534-535.

1966      Archaeology and Geomorphology of Northern Asia: Selected Works (H. N. Michael, Ed.) and The Soviet Far East in Antiquity an Archaeological and Historical Study of the Maritime Region of the U.S.S.R. (A. P. Okladnikov).  American Anthropologist 68: 1302-1303.

Editorial and Review Boards (* = past):

Journal of Archaeological Science, Editor

African Natural History

*Chicago Academy of Sciences

Evolutionary Anthropology


*International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ)

Journal of Field Archaeology

*Journal of Human Evolution

L. S. B. Leakey Foundation, Chair, Grants Committee

*National Science Foundation Archeology Panel

*National Science Foundation, HOMINID Panel

*PALEO: Révue d’Archéologie Préhistorique


*Paleoecology of Africa

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Quaternary Research

*Science Year (World Book)

South African Archaeological Bulletin

*United States National INQUA Committee

*Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Advisory Board

Current Professional Memberships:

American Academy of Arts and Sciences

American Association of Physical Anthropologists

California Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Sciences

Royal Society of South Africa

South African Archaeological Society (President July 2002 – July 2004)


Comments Off

Stefan de Kock


Heritage Practitioner – HIA Management – Urban Panning



Stefan is a generalist heritage practitioner, is educated in other fields and specialized in certain areas of Heritage Impact Assessment. For further details see his CV posted below.




Principal Stéfan de Kock 

Date of Birth 1973 

Nationality South African 

Education B-Tech: Town and Regional Planning (C-Tech, SA) 

Environmental Impact Assessment Management (Dublin University, IRL) 

Architectural & Urban Conservation (University of Cape Town, SA) 

Urban Design Decision Making (University of Cape Town, SA) 

Professional Corporate Member of the Irish Planning Institute 

Membership Member of the Association of Heritage Assessment Practitioners 

Being a Member of the Association of Heritage Assessment Practitioners (AHAP), Stéfan de Kock 

is currently involved in the following projects in capacity as Heritage Practitioner: 

  • · Preliminary Heritage Survey (Red Flag Mapping) for proposed George Western Bypass;
  • · Submission of NID / Heritage Impact Assessment for Helderberg International School:

Gustrouw 918/82, Stellenbosch; 

  • · Preliminary Heritage Survey for Riversdale CBD with draft Heritage Inventory as part of multidisciplinary

“Riversdale Re-vitalisation Programme”; 

  • · Preliminary Heritage Survey of George CBD as part of investigation for proposed George

Mobility Strategy, initiated by the Western Cape Provincial Department of Transport; 

  • · Assist George Municipality in compilation up of a tender for the appointment of professionals

to undertake Heritage Inventory for the George Municipal Area; 

  • · Preliminary Heritage Survey for proposed re-development of Erf 1268, Wilderness (Fairy

Knowe Hotel; 

  • · Assist George Municipality in drawing up of a tender for the appointment of professionals to

undertake Heritage Inventory for George; 

  • · The following submissions in terms of Section 38 of the National Heritage Resources Act,

1999 (Act 25 of 1999) (not all mentioned here): 

– Mooikloof Residential Estate, Hansmoeskraal 202/21, 23, 24, 48 & 48, George (NID); 

– Monteniqua Sports Academy and Forest Estate, Houtbosch 212/33, 47, 50 and Farm 

216/5, 8, 9, Remainder, George (NID); 

– Camdeboo Eco Reserve, Bo Plaat 287 and De Vreede 286, Graaff Reinet (NID); 

– Residential development, Kraaibosch 195/3, George (NID, HIA); 

– Residential development, Erven 1992 and 2646, Great Brak River (NID, HIA); 

– Residential development, Erf 2098, Plettenberg Bay (NID, HIA); 

– Residential development, Erven 923 and 6212, Oudtshoorn (NID, HIA); 

– Stonehouse Country Estate, Hillview 437/9, Knysna (NID); 

– Boutique hotel, Houtbosch 212/51, George (NID); 

– Kwanokuthula Housing Extension, Plettenberg Bay (NID); 

– Heidevallei Land Reform Project, Knysna (NID, HIA) 

– Extension of Eastford Bulk Services Infrastructure (NID); 

– Extension of Kraaibosch Bulk Sewer line – Phase Two (NID); 

– Tarka Land Claim, Mossel Bay (Land Claim Commission) (NID, HIA); 

– Agricultural development, Abrahamskraal, Prince Albert (NID); 

– Residential development, Erf 419 (Reebok), Mossel Bay (NID); 

– Residential development, Erf 1115 (Tergniet), Mossel Bay (NID); 

– Duinekraal Residential Estate, Duinekroon 591/ Remainder, (Still Bay) Riversdale (NID); 

– Residential development, Kraaibosch 195/ 256, 273, George (NID, HIA); 

– Hotel development, Gansevallei 444/38, Plettenberg Bay (NID); 

– Borcherds bus depot, George Mobility Strategy (NID); 

– Social Housing project, Astley 439/2, 22, Plettenberg Bay (NID); 

  • · Application for permit to demolish structure older than 60 years in terms of National Heritage

Resources Act, 1999 (Act 25 of 1999): Erf 22 (Oaklands), Johannesburg. 

From September 2001until February 2004, he joins An Bord Pleanala (Irish National Planning 

Appeals Board), a Directorate of the Irish National Department of Environment, Heritage and Local 

Government. Here he gains extensive knowledge on particularly high- and medium density urban 

residential projects, urban conservation, rural- and agricultural related projects. Heritage-related 

projects researched and adjudicated includes the following (copies of these reports available on 


  • · Construction of 5 x four bedroom detached dormer dwellings, 4 x three bedroom semidetached

dwellings, 5 apartment blocks each containing 1 x two bedroom apartment and 1 x 

one bedroom apartment as well as associated site works at Rosses Upper, Rosses Point, 

Sligo (PL027.125453); 

  • · Demolition of existing double storey building and construction of new office building for

Wexford County Council at Hill Street, Wexford (PL085.126065, PL85.201523); 

  • · Construction of eleven dwellings, Bawn Street, Strokestown, County Roscommon


  • · Marina basin, link to existing canal, toilet block, refuse store, general stores, petrol- and diesel

pumps, 6 dwellings and new service road from public road at Old Schoolhouse to proposed 

development, including services, small sewerage treatment plant and car parking area at 

Mount Plunket, Lecarrow, County Roscommon (PL027.126488); 

  • · Demolition of existing three storey building and construction of new three storey building with

basement storage, licensed restaurant/take-away on ground floor level and office space on 

first- and second floor levels at 31a John Street, Waterford (PL31.127607); 

  • · Refurbishment and change of use of a Martello Tower (a protected structure) to an archive at

Brighton Vale, Seapoint, County Dublin (PL06D.128362); 

  • · Demolition of existing 2 storey office building; removal of adjacent on grade car park; Mixed

development comprising Office space at ground- and first floor levels; 5 two-bedroom 

apartments; 1 two-bedroom maisonette; 1 one-bedroom apartment at first- and second floor 

levels together with associated services and development works at 7-12 Baggot Court, Dublin 

2, County Dublin (PL29D.129210); 

  • · Construction of three 52m high wind turbines and ancillary works at Gibraltar, Stratford-on-

Slaney, County Wicklow (PL27.130834); 

  • · Construction of a two-turbine wind farm consisting of turbine towers not exceeding 71m in

height and turbine rotors not exceeding 71.5m in diameter with ancillary buildings and 

incidental site works at Kilmullin, Newtownmountkennedy, County Wicklow (PL27.200319); 

  • · Alterations to shop front and entrance to upper floors at Robert Chambers Hair Salon, 69

Grafton Street, Dublin 2, County Dublin (PL29S.201076); 

  • · Construction of overhead electricity line of double circuit 110kV from Killowen and

Huntingtown to Banoge, County Wexford (PL26.202379); 

  • · Demolition of dwelling and construction of 21 apartments and 2 townhouses with revised

vehicular access onto Stillorgan Park Road at Meadow Court, Stillorgan Park, Blackrock, 

County Dublin (PL06D.202962). 

In December 2002, Stéfan is elected as a Corporate Member of the Irish Planning Institute. He is 

also sanctioned by An Bord Pleanala to engage in further studies and completes a Diploma in 

Environmental Impact Assessment Management at the Dublin University in 2002. During 2003 he 

is also sanctioned to attend the Planning Summer School, held at the University of Wales, under 

the auspices of the Royal Town Planning Institute. In December 2003, returns to South Africa and 

in February 2004 and founds PERCEPTION Environmental Planning. The focus of this 

consultancy is primarily on Urban Planning projects and Heritage Impact Assessment throughout 

the Western- and Eastern Cape. In June 2007 completes a course in Architectural & Urban 

conservation at the University of Cape Town. 

Prior to 2001, he acquired experience within the South African public sector during respective 

employment terms with Mossel Bay Municipality, George Municipality and Eden District 

Municipality (c. 5.5yrs). He also spent time in the private sector (c. 0.5yrs) when joining Aikman 

Architects and Planners as an Urban Planner where he gained experience in various private/ 

public sector ventures relating to urban development, e.g. proposed re-development programme 

for William Porter Reformatory, Tokai. 

PERCEPTION Heritage Planning 

PO Box 9995, GEORGE, 6530 

Fax: 086 510 8357 

Mobile: 082 568 4719 



Comments Off

John Pether

Palaeontologist & Geologist


John - geo-palaeontologist in the field 1984

John’s CV below says it all …


Mr John Pether, M.Sc., Pr. Sci. Nat. (Earth Science)

Geological and Palaeontological Consultant

P. O. Box 48318, Kommetjie, 7976.

Tel./Fax: (021) 7833023. Cellphone: 083 744 6295. Email: Faxmail: 0866 890 732


January 2010


Independent Consultant/Researcher.


 Shallow marine sedimentology.

 Coastal plain and shelf stratigraphy (interpretation of open-pit exposures and cores).

 Marine macrofossil taxonomy (molluscs, barnacles, brachiopods).

 Marine macrofossil taphonomy.

 Sedimentological and palaeontological field techniques in open-cast mines (including finding and excavation of vertebrate fossils (bones).

 Analysis of the shelly macrofauna of modern samples e.g. for environmental surveys.

Is a recognized authority in the field of coastal-plain and continental-shelf palaeoenvironments and is consulted by exploration and mining companies, by the Council for Geoscience, the Geological Survey of Namibia and by colleagues/students in academia pursuing coastal-plain/shelf projects.

Has intimate knowledge of the West Coast geohistorical model w.r.t. exploration for gem diamond resources. Currently a member of the Afri-Can Marine Minerals Corp. exploration team.

Has served as a representative for the interests of palaeontology in early discussions on developing strategies to mitigate loss of data and fossils in coastal mines and developments, in terms of Heritage Resource Management.

At present, an important involvement is in palaeontological impact assessments (PIAs) and mitigation projects in terms of the National Heritage Resources Act 25 (1999).


 South African Council of Natural Scientific Professions. Earth Science. Reg. No. 400094/95.

 Geological Society of South Africa.

 Palaeontological Society of Southern Africa.

 Southern African Society for Quaternary Research.

 Heritage Western Cape. Member, Permit Committee for Archaeology, Palaeontology and Meteorites.

 Accredited member, Association of Professional Heritage Practitioners, Western Cape.



1995. Draft procedures for the mitigation of mining impacts on palaeontological resources at the proposed Anglo-Alpha Saldanha Cement Project. For Mark Wood Consultants, Environmental Management. (Jun)

1995. Specialist Palaeontological Study. Assessment of the potential palaeontological impacts of the shale and limestone mining, Anglo-Alpha Saldanha Cement Project. For Mark Wood Consultants, Environmental Management. (Jun).

1995. The Impact of Mining on Fossiliferous Sediments. Submitted to the Mining Environment Forum, Western Cape Regional office of the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs. (27 Oct).

2003. Palaeontological Mitigation Report, Development on Velddrif Fossil Shell Bar. Noordhoek Phase 2, Velddrif Housing, Berg River Municipality. For Ninham Shand (Pty) Ltd. (Oct).

2004. Initial Palaeontological Mitigation Report, Last Interglacial Deposits Verlorevlei South Bank. Re-alignment of Main Road Mr 535, Elandsbaai, Provincial Administration Western Cape. For Megan Anderson, Landscape Architect. February 2005. (May).

2004. Palaeontological Mitigation Report, Coastal Marine Deposits Dwarskersbos. Dwarskersbos Erf 276 Housing Development. For BKS (Pty) Ltd. (Sept).

2005. Final Palaeontological Mitigation Report, Last Interglacial Deposits Verlorevlei South Bank. Re-alignment of Main Road Mr 535, Elandsbaai, Provincial Administration Western Cape. For Megan Anderson, Landscape Architect. (Feb).

2005. Brief assessment for palaeontological mitigation, sites on Witteklip, Vredenburg. For Heritage Resources Authority, Western Cape. (2 Sept).

2006. Western Macassar Dunes Eco-trails Project. Heritage specialist input for Draft Scoping Report: Palaeontological assessment of the Western Macassar Dunes. For UCT Environmental Evaluation Unit. (Feb)

2006. Western Macassar Dunes Eco-trails Project. Palaeontological assessment of the Western Macassar Dunes: General Information Document. For UCT Environmental Evaluation Unit. (Feb).

2006. Palaeontological and scientific mitigation of shoreline deposits during works at Dwarskersbos, Erf 149, Dwarskersbos North and Farm 109, Dwarskersbos South. For Western Cape Environmental Consultants (Pty) Ltd, t/a ENVIRO DINAMIK. Mar.

2006. Palaeontological and scientific mitigation of shoreline deposits during works at Erf 470, Velddrif. For Western Cape Environmental Consultants (Pty) Ltd, t/a ENVIRO DINAMIK. Mar.

2006. Palaeontological investigation and mitigatory actions for proposed hazardous waste disposal site, Saldanha Bay municipal area. For Resource Management Services. May.

2006. Palaeontological Mitigatory Actions – Development of Erf 578, Velddrif (Laaiplek). For Western Cape Environmental Consultants (Pty) Ltd, t/a ENVIRO DINAMIK. Aug.

2006. Palaeontological investigation and mitigatory actions for proposed residue dam, Namakwa Sands smelter, Saldanha Bay municipal area. For Resource Management Services. Aug.

2006. Palaeontological Mitigatory Actions – Development of Erf 377, Jacobs Bay. For Matflor (Pty) Ltd. Sept.

2006. Palaeontological Mitigatory Actions – Developments of Portion 7 of Jacobs Baay 108 and Portion 3 of Trekossen Kraal 104. Prepared for Mr Tim Hart, Heritage Assessor, UCT Archaeology Contracts Office (ACO). Sept.

2006. Palaeontological Mitigatory Actions – Development of Erf 460, St. Helena Bay. For CK Rumboll & Partners. Sept.

2006. Palaeontological Mitigation Report, Coastal Marine Deposits, Bloubergstrand. For Cape Archaeology, Dr Mary Patrick. Sept.

2006. Palaeontological Mitigatory Actions – Development of Philipskraal, Centrepoint Development, Saldanha Small Holdings. For BKS (Pty) Ltd Engineering and Management. Dec.

2007. Brief palaeontological impact assessment and proposed mitigatory actions. Construction of a pebble-bed modular reactor, Koeberg. For Archaeology Contracts Office, Dept Archaeology, UCT. (Nov). 3

2007. Palaeontological Impact Assessment. Desktop scoping report. Developments of Duinekroon 591/ remainder (Still Bay), district Riversdale. For Perception Environmental Planning. (Oct).

2008. EIA Phase 2 expansion of the Saldanha iron ore handling facility. Heritage: Palaeontological Assessment. Stratigraphic review and recommendations for palaeontological mitigation. For PD Naidoo & Associates (Pty) Ltd, consultants to Transnet. (Feb).

2008. Palaeontological Mitigation and Geoheritage: De Beers Namaqualand Mines. Initial Draft Report. 28pp, with 4 maps and 49 images. Unpub. (May).

2008. Palaeontological potential at Baboon Point. A brief palaeontological assessment of erven 65, 66 and Portion 4 of Verlorenvlei Farm no. 8, Baboon Point/Cape Deseada, Elandsbaai. For Agency for Cultural Resource Management. (June).

2008. Palaeontological Impact Assessment. Development Of Erven 231 and 478, Velddrif (Laaiplek). For Robin Ellis, Heritage Impact Assessor. (July).

2009. Draft Palaeontological Impact Assessment. New Borrow Pits for Roadworks, Port Nolloth – Richtersveld Municipality. For Van Zyl Environmental Consultants, Upington. (Jan).

2009. Palaeontological Impact Assessment. Proposed Phosphate Prospecting, Langebaanweg. Langeberg 185 Portions 7 & 12 and Farm 1043, Vredenburg Magisterial District, Saldanha Bay Municipality. For Site Plan Consulting (Pty) Ltd. (Feb).

2009. Palaeontological Impact Assessment (Desktop Scoping Study). Proposed Construction of an Hotel on Ganse Vallei 444/38, Plettenberg Bay, District Knysna, Western Cape. For Perception Environmental Planning. (May).

2009. Palaeontological Impact Assessment (Desktop Scoping Study). Proposed Housing Development on Besters Kraal 38, Portion 37, Vredenburg, Western Cape. For Agency for Cultural Resource Management. (June).

2009. Palaeontological Impact Assessment (Desktop Scoping Study) and Chance Find Management Plan. Establishment of a Metal Recovery Plant At Arcelor Mittal Saldanha Works, Saldanha Bay, Western Cape. For Environmental Resources Management SA (ERM). (June).

2009. Palaeontological Monitoring Report. Establishment Of A Metal Recovery Plant At Arcelor Mittal Saldanha Works, Saldanha Bay, Western Cape. For Environmental Resources Management SA (ERM). (Aug).

2009. Palaeontological Impact Assessment (Desktop Scoping Study). Proposed Construction of an Hotel on Erf 12529, Beacon Island Estate, Plettenberg Bay, District Knysna, Western Cape. For Perception Environmental Planning. (June).

2009. Palaeontological Impact Assessment (Desktop Scoping Study). Proposed New Waste Water Treatment Works, Paternoster. Remainder Besters Kraal 38, Portion 3 and Erf 1519, Vredenburg District, Saldanha Bay Municipality, Western Cape. For Agency for Cultural Resource Management. (July).

2009. Palaeontological Mitigation Procedures. Initial Phase 2a Phosphate Prospecting. Langeberg 185 Ptns 7 & 12 and Farm 1043, Langebaanweg, Vredenburg Magisterial District, Saldanha Bay Municipality. For Site Plan Consulting (Pty) Ltd. (Sept).

2009. Palaeontological Impact Assessment. (Desktop Scoping Study). Protection Of Saldanha-Sishen Iron Ore Railway Line From Beach Erosion Processes Near Elandsbaai. (Aka S.E.F 502330: Elandsbaai Sand Dune Rehabilitation). For Strategic Environmental Focus (Pty) Ltd (Oct).

2009. Palaeontological Impact Assessment (Desktop Study). Proposed Vredelus 132/22 Kv Substation and Verlore-Vredelus 132 Kv Overhead Powerline. With Fossil Find Procedures. Project Reference 0104439, Task 1, Eskom Verlore/Vredelus. For Environmental Resources Management SA (ERM). (Dec).

2009. Palaeontological Mitigation Report. Initial Phase 2a Phosphate Prospecting. Langeberg 185 Ptns 7 & 12 and Farm 1043, Langebaanweg, Vredenburg Magisterial District, Saldanha Bay Municipality. For Site Plan Consulting (Pty) Ltd. (Dec).

2010. Brief Desktop Palaeontological Impact Assessment. Development of Erf 6268, Atlantis Extension 12. For Cape Archaeology (Jan). 4


2005. Note on calcareous tubes etc. from Mossel Bay, sample 46842. For Dr. Curtis W. Marean, Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University. (5 May).

2005. Marine deposits and sea-level history in the Mossel Bay area. With Dave Roberts, CGS. For SACP4 Project led by Dr. Curtis W. Marean, Institute of Human Origins, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University. Ongoing.

2005. Geology of the Velddrif area and desktop assessment of the potential for ****** deposits. For CNdV Africa. (22 Jun).

2005. Notes on a visit to Namakwa Sands, 14 March 2005. For Namakwa Sands (Pty) Ltd. (19 Apr).

2005. Namakwa Sands West Mine: stratigraphy, depositional environments and palaeontology. 1st Report. For Namakwa Sands. (Dec.).

2005. The West Coast – a brief history. For Mr Joss Lean, Exec. Producer, Project Coordination, Our Coast for Life. (Jul).

2005. Initial examination of the macrofaunal fossil content of paraconglomerates from SASA 2C. For De Beers Marine (SA) Pty Ltd. (Aug).

2006. Stratigraphic contexts of palaeoseismicity, Namaqualand coast. Field consultation. For the Council for Geoscience. (Feb).

2006. Namakwa Sands West Mine: stratigraphy, depositional environments and palaeontology. 2nd Phase. For Namakwa Sands. (Oct. – ongoing).

2006. Stratigraphy, depositional environments and palaeontology of Marine EPL 2499, off Namibia. For Afri-Can Marine Minerals Corp. (Nov. – ongoing).

2007. Epl 2499, Namibia. Report On The Vibracores. Features 6, 8, 17 & 18. Voyage Mv Mare Oceano, October-November 2006. Parts I & II. For Afri-Can Marine Minerals Corp. (Aug).

2008. Due Diligence Report. Concession Area EPL 3484, Namibia. For Afri-Can Marine Minerals Corp. Co-authors M. Mittelmeyer, J Pether, L Gardner. (Nov).


Pether, J. 1983. The lithostratigraphy of Hondeklipbaai – a reconnaissance. Unpub. B.Sc. Honours Project, University of Cape Town , 77 pp.

Kensley, B. & Pether, J. 1986. Late Tertiary and Early Quaternary Mollusca of the Hondeklip area, Cape Province, South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 97 (6): 141-225.

Pether, J. 1986. Late Tertiary and Early Quaternary marine deposits of the Namaqualand coast, Cape Province: new perspectives. South African Journal of Science 82 (9): 464-470.

Grindley, J.R., Rogers, J., Woodborne, M.W. and Pether, J. 1988. Holocene evolution of Rietvlei, near Cape Town, deduced from the palaeoecology of some mid-Holocene estuarine Mollusca. Palaeoecology of Africa 19: 347-353.

Pether, J. 1990. A new Austromegabalanus (Cirripedia, Balanidae) from the Pliocene of Namaqualand, Cape Province, South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 99 (1): 1-13.

Rogers, J., Pether, J., Molyneux, R., Hill, R.S., Kilham, J.L.C., Cooper, G. & Corbett, I.B. 1990. Cenozoic geology and mineral deposits along the west coast of South Africa and the Sperrgebiet. Guidebook Geocongress ’90. Geological Society of South Africa, PR 1: 1-111.

Pether, J. 1993. Relict shells of Subantarctic Mollusca from the Orange Shelf, Benguela Region, off southwestern Africa. The Veliger 36 (3): 276-284.

Pether, J. 1994. Molluscan evidence for enhanced deglacial advection of Agulhas water in the Benguela Current, off southwestern Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 111: 99-117.

Pether, J. 1994. The sedimentology, palaeontology and stratigraphy of coastal-plain deposits at Hondeklip Bay, Namaqualand, South Africa. Unpub. M.Sc. thesis, University of Cape Town, 313 pp. 5

Pether, J. 1995. Belichnus new ichnogenus, a ballistic trace on mollusc shells from the Holocene of the Benguela region, South Africa. Journal of Paleontology 69: 171-181.

Pether, J, Roberts, D.L. and Ward, J.D. 2000. Deposits of the West Coast (Chapter 3). In: Partridge, T.C. and Maud, R.R. eds. The Cenozoic of Southern Africa. Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics No. 40. Oxford University Press: 33-55.

Roberts, D.L., Botha, G.A., Maud, R.R. and Pether, J. 2006. Coastal Cenozoic Deposits (Chapter 30). In: Johnson, M. R., Anhaeusser, C. R. and Thomas, R. J. (eds.), The Geology of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg/Council for Geoscience, Pretoria: 605-628.


1986. The Late Tertiary and Early Quaternary marine deposits of the coast of Namaqualand, Cape Province. Institute of Coastal Research, University of Port Elisabeth, Report No. 12: 50-60.

1986. Fossil molluscs from Hondeklipbaai. Fourth Conference of the Palaeontological Society of South Africa, Abstracts.

1987. Shallow marine deposition in the Pliocene of Namaqualand. Sixth National Oceanographic Symposium, Stellenbosch. Handbook: B-27.

1989. Relict to Recent Mollusca: a potential for Benguela history. Conference on Geosphere-Biosphere change in Southern Africa, Cape Town, Programme and Abstracts: 35.

1989. Summary of western shelf malacological evidence. Proceedings of the Workshop on later Quaternary fluctuations of sea-level 13th March, 1989, University of Cape Town.

1989. The malacofauna of late Quaternary transgressions. Proceedings of the Workshop on later Quaternary fluctuations of sea-level 13th March, 1989, University of Cape Town..

1995. Molluscan evidence of climatic change from the western shelf. XII Biennial Conference of the Southern African Society for Quaternary Research, Abstracts, 9-10.


1987. Curious conches from bygone beaches. Sagittarius 2 (1): 7-9.

1988. Provinces past and present. Sagittarius 3: 2- 4.

1990. West Coast Excursion. Geobulletin, The Geological Society of South Africa 33(3): 24-26.


1956. Born in Cape Town on the 19th June.

1973. Matriculated First Grade, Westerford High School, Newlands.

1974. Research technical assistant, Division of Sea Fisheries, Walvis Bay. Involved in monitoring of pelagic fishing and in oceanographic and biological research cruises.

1977. B.Sc. student, Geology major, University of Cape Town.

1980. Geologist, Trans-Hex Group (Buffelsbank Diamante, Terra Marina). Diamond exploration onshore and offshore, including ore-body delineation at Hondeklip Bay, prospecting of modern beaches and shoreface, including side-scan sonar mapping. Mapping of south bank Orange River terraces (Baken).

1981. B.Sc., Geology major, University of Cape Town.

1983. B.Sc. Honours, University of Cape Town.

1984. Joined the South African Museum as Professional Officer in the Department of Cenozoic Palaeontology. Researcher of the palaeontology, sedimentology and palaeoenvironments of coastal-plain deposits and deposits of the continental shelf. Duties also involved field collection of invertebrate and vertebrate fossils, their conservation and curation. Honourary curator of the modern Mollusca collection. Participated in educational programmes by giving lectures, courses and preparing displays.

1994. M.Sc. degree awarded with distinction (UCT).

1996. Senior Project Geologist, De Beers Marine. Data acquisition, management, analysis, synthesis and report compilation involving inter alia: field observations, logging and sampling; development 6

of routine field logging criteria, recording procedures and training for operational personnel; sample analysis and interpretation; geological and geophysical interpretation; seabed geotechnical characterization; consultation to peers within the company; project planning; input to local and regional geological models, including within the wider De Beers Group companies.

2004 – Present. Independent Consultant/Researcher.

Currently an independent consultant to Afri-Can Marine Minerals Corp. as a member of the exploration team.

Consultant to EIA/HIA projects, contributing palaeontological impact assessments (PIAs) and mitigation recommendations in terms of the National Heritage Resources Act 25 (1999).



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Harriet Clift


Historical Archaeologist – Archival & Deeds Research


Harriet - the joys of sandbagging, Shell Midden Complex, Pinnacle Point, Mossel Bay - winter 2008


Harriet holds a Masters degree (University of Cape Town, South Africa) in historical archaeology and also specializes in archival and deeds research.  In addition to considerable experience in the above fields, she also acted as Field Director for CHARM during excavations of coastal shell midden sites on South Africa’s south coast.  See more about Harriet on 


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Kathleen Schulz

Historical researcher specialising in archival and deeds office research.  Kathleen has extensive experience in a variety of heritage related subjects – see CV below for further details.


feels like home - Kathleen - Suikerbuilt 145

“She is a passionate researcher, someone who is able to interpret historical information beyond the written text. Her extensive use of Archival and Deeds Office resources enables her to provide concise and pertinent research reports.”

 I have known Kath for longer than I care to mention and have great respect for everything she does.  See further details in her CV posted below.













(Updated February 2010)


Personal Details

ADDRESS:                                                        11 Boekenhout Street

                                                                        George – 6529                                                               

TELEPHONE NUMBER                                      082 563 7927

E MAIL ADDRESS                                                                               

BIRTHDAY                                                       15 January 1949

MARITAL STATUS                                            Divorced

CURRENT EMPLOYMENT STATUS                   Contractor: Specialist Historical Researcher

NUMBER OF CHILDREN                                    4 (adult)

STATUS OF HEALTH                                        Excellent

VALID DRIVERS LICENCE                                CODE 08


1967-1976 Pietermaritizburg – Natal

Employer: Shepstone & Wylie Attorneys 

Position:  Deeds Office Researcher

Deeds searches of significance included the annual Durban Municipal rates search, (tracing owners of properties) and searches for ESCOM, tracing ownership and restrictive clauses attached to properties over which pylons were to be built.

Volunteer work

Pietermarizburg Museum 

Position:  Volunteer Researcher

Researched archival material pertaining to 17th century ship wrecks along the

Eastern Cape shorelines for Professor Tim Maggs (Archaeologist).  This material

was used in a paper presented at the 1979 World Conference of Archaeologists

held in Cape Town.   

Spent one year in London.

1977-1981 Stellenbosch

Employer: Stellenbosch University, Archaeology Department

Position: Part time research assistant

Duties included:

Sorting artifacts from the late iron-age site ‘Boomplaas’ (in the Cango region) for Professor H Deacon; 

Oral interviewing of Nama inhabitants at Leliefontein, Namaqualand, in order to establish seasonal migratory patterns;

Artwork for publications.

Employer: Self

Position: Craft Market co-ordinator and Potter

Established a Saturday morning street market in Stellenbosch known as the ‘Dorp Steeg’ market. 


Employer: Progressive Federal Party

Position: Part time administrator – Stellenbosch

Duties included:

Organizing political speakers to address student audiences;

Administering student and adult committees; 

Organizing fund raising events;

Delegating duties to volunteer election workers.

1982-1989 George

Employer: George Museum

Position: Volunteer Researcher

Duties included:

Research of woodcutters in the Knysna forests and the original Dutch East India Company settlement in the George.

Research was undertaken in the Cape Town Deeds Office and Cape Town Archives.

1990-1993 Cape Town

Employer: University of Cape Town – Department of Historical Archaeology

Position: Researcher and co-ordinator of Contract Archaeology unit. 

Duties included:

  • Research of 17th and 18th century Dutch class structures and gender issues for Professor Martin Hall.
  • Co-ordination of archaeological contract field trips;
  • Administration of the Contracts Office;
  • Committee member and co-ordinator of archaeological world conference held at UCT in 1991(SAE3);

1993-May 1995 Cape Town                              

Employer: Self

Position: –  Archival and Deeds Researcher

Research commissions or projects assigned included:

  • 17th century Vergelegen Cape Farm

Specific assignment to trace the slave ancestry of 17th century slaves residing at Vergelegen – in an attempt to identify the female skeletal remains found in the Vergelegen ‘slave lodge’ during archaeological excavations.  Report delivered to Dr Anne Markell, U C T.   Genealogical lines were traced for 16th and 17th century owners of Vergelegen.

  • Elsenburg Agricultural College

A tender bid was successful to provide historical background to the Agricultural College for the purpose of promoting tourism and public relations.  Research included a full 17th and 18th century archival and deeds search.  Genealogical lines were traced for owners of the farm.

  • 18th-19th century – Block LL Central Cape Town research
  • Directed by Dr Antonia Malan of UCT Archaeology Department to provide an in-depth report on the deeds records for a central block in the Cape Town urban grid.
  • 18th century – Gabled homesteads of the Western Cape
  • Professor Martin Hall UCT- Historical Archaeology contracted my services intermittently when funds were available, to gain more information on builders of gabled 18th century homes of the Cape.  The elements of rural aristocracy were researched and compared with known vernacular styles of early farmsteads.
  • Lost City of the Kalahari

Mr. A Castiglioni of Centro Ricerche su Deserto Orientale, Milan, Italy, requested a feasibility report on the viability of locating the so-called “Lost City of the Kalahari”.

  • 17th century – Cape Town Gardens

Dr Pamela Rodetti of London University requested a full archival search for the various botanical species planted in the Cape Town Gardens during the 17th century.

  • 17th century – Copper mining, West Cape Coast

Dr. Duncan Miller, UCT requested an extensive report on copper mining activities in Namaqualand during 17th century.

  • Calitzdorp

Professor Garth Sampson (Archaeology Department – Methodist University Dallas, Texas), employed my services to establish the land lineage of the Karoo town, Calitzdorp.

  • Op-Onder Sneeuwberg

Professor Sampson also requested a full investigatory archival/deeds search, depicting migratory and settlement patterns of 18th century Trek Boers in the Graaff-Reinet region of Op-Onder Sneeuwberg.

1995 Botswana                        

Employer: Professor Pierre de Marais, University of Brussels

Position:  Researcher

Duties included:

Identifying indigenous potters of Botswana;

Interviewing potters;

Recording techniques used in constructing pots;

Recording mythology of ceramic decoration;

Mapping clay source sites.

1996-2001 George

Employer: Commission on Restitution of Land Rights – Department of Land Affairs

Instrumental in establishing the Land Restitution office in George.

Position: Researcher

Duties included:

  • Deeds and archival research.
  • Compilation of research reports for community and urban land restitution claims in the South Cape region.
  • Pre-settlement negotiations involving stakeholders of land claims.
  • Assistance with compilation of Ministerial Submissions for Land Settlement Agreements and Mandates to Negotiate.
  • Close collaboration with NGO sectors and claimants.
  • General office administration.

 During the period of employment a thorough understanding of land dispossessions and political background pertaining to the South Cape region was acquired.

Courses attended        

  • Employment Equity and Culture Change in Management.
  • Mediation and Arbitration – Land Reform.
  • Applying Project Management to Public Service Delivery.
  • Land Restitution – Policy and Implementation.
  • Participatory Planning for Effective Legal Entities (Land reform).
  • Prescribed Personal Performance Management Systems workshops.

Reason for resignation: Burn out, health was suffering.

2002 -2004

Employer                                             Department of Arts, Culture and Sport

Position:                                              Researcher

Duties included:                                  

Detailed research and text writing for museum display purposes : Client,George Museum.

Subject: ‘The Story of Forced Removals executed by previous Governments within the George

Municipal boundary’.


Consultancy work. Providing the history component of Heritage Impact

Assessments for proposed developments in Southern Cape.

Projects delivered to Environmental Consultants HilLand Associates, George;

   Hoogekraal Leasure Lifestyles (Glentana)

   De Gouritz (Gouritz river mouth)

   Outeniquabosch (Hartenbosch)

   Founders Estate (Knsyna)

   Cango Cycle Route (Oudtshoorn)

   Riverhill (Wilderness)


Research tasks included;

  • Le Grand Golfing and Residential Estate. George.

Historical report for Le Grand Golfing and Residential Estate, Gwaing River mouth :   Client Embale Shamba CC.

  • Waterloo Bay Great Fish River.

Historical report for residential estate, Waterloo Bay situated on the eastern bank of the Great Fish river. The report provided historical supplementary information requested by Ms M Attwell – Heritage Consultant, Cape Town, for the purpose of compiling a heritage impact assessment.  : Client, Crawford and Company/Shand Environmental Consultants.

  • Suikerbult Community – Oudtshoorn.

Suikerbult community were dispossessed of their land rights in 1968. Burial grounds existed on the dispossessed land which lay fallow until 2001. In 2001 Oudtshoorn Municipality built housing units on Suikerbult land, partially destroying the demolished and disused burial ground. A facilitated way forward was requested of me by Poem Mooney (Chief, Attaqua Tribe) and the dispossessed Suikerbult community. Successful mediation resulted in the community’s request for full reburial of human remains to the Oudtshoorn municipal cemetery being acceded to by Municipality. This project was assisted by SAHRA (South African Heritage Resource Agency) field workers and the University of Cape Town’s Contract Archaeology team.

 2007     McGregor Heritage Training Programme.      

South African Heritage Resource Agency employed my services to provide archival research training to seven heritage trainee students resident in McGregor. The programme was sponsored with SA Lotto funding and the contract duration was three months. Training included a one week practical course in Cape Town during which students were familiarized with research resource centres, namely the Cape Town Archives, Cape Town Deeds Office and Mowbray Surveys and Mapping offices. Students were provided with a research methodology toolkit, compiled and presented by myself. The toolkit was tailored to their particular research project needs. Additional training periods were executed every three weeks for three/four days at a time in McGregor.

             Prince Albert Museum.

Three months was spent in Prince Albert with the Prince Albert Museum Volunteer Group – sorting and cataloging the museum’s paper and photographic collection. Guidance and additional support was provided by the Department of Arts Culture and Sport, Museum services, George and Cape Town offices.

17th c Cape Town Dutch East India farm Rustenburg, currently occupied by University Cape Town   (UCT).

Sally Titlestad, Cape Town based researcher requested archival research assistance in order to verify the existence of an alleged slave burial site on land intended for development by the UCT.

Robololo, Flenters and Concordia West, housing project, Knsyna.

A report was compiled for Dr. Peter Nillsen Archaeologist, providing the background history of a disused burial ground on land earmarked for a housing project.

 2008 and 2009

Worked closely with local Heritage Practitioner Stefan de Kock, providing historical reports for both Heritage Impact Assessments and Notifications of Intent to Develop for submission to Heritage Western Cape.

Historical Research reports submitted to S. de Kock include: 

  • George Western Bypass Road Project. Notification of Intent to Develop submitted to Heritage Western Cape. (Hereunder referred to as NID) for Western Cape provincial authorities.
  • Groot Brak erf 1992. (NID) and Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA).
  • Tarka, Mossel Bay. Land Restitution Settlement.
  • Eastford (Knysna) Bulk Services. (NID)
  • Erf 157 Pacaltsdorp. Preliminary Heritage Statement.
  • Fairy Knowe. Extensions to the hotel. Section 34(1), submitted to Heritage Western Cape
  • George Mobility Study. Heritage Statement, George Municipal authorities.
  • Heidevalei, Knysna (Land reform programme). (NID)
  • Zwartrivier farm 183. Private client. NID and HIA
  • Grootefontein, Still Bay. Heritage Statement
  • Malgaskraal and Witfontein George (NID) George Municipal authorities.
  • Melkhoutkraal, Knysna (NID) Knysna Municipal authorities.
  • Merweville, Karoo (NID) Beaufort West Municipal authorities
  • Southern Arterial Bypass road.  George Municipal authorites
  • George Museum renovations. Section 34 application (National Heritage Resources Act 25 of 1999).
  • Keurboomstrand erf 157. Report on land use Patterns. Private owner.
  • Hoekwil erf 43. Background research report. Private owner. 
  • Cape Town City Mobility Project. Sub-contracted by Sally Titlestad to source historical pictorial images for street signage from Cape Town railway station to the new soccer stadium in Green Point.

 2010 Projects submitted thus far.

  • George Rand Street Road Extension Project. George Municipal authorities. Expanded NID. 

           Personal research.

  • Compilation of a genealogy data base of early South Cape ethnic race groups. Currently the data base lists 2358 family surnames. Information is obtained from various archival sources including church records, Cape Town Archives, Cape Town Deeds Office and oral sources.  
  • Constant acquisition and collation of archival material relating to the Southern Cape in order to add value to my desk top archive.


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Anthony Manhire

under construction


Anthony - rare image of Field Director excavating - Paternoster shell midden excavations 2006/2007

Anthony - bad weather - winter excavation season, Paternoster 2006/7


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Heritage Resources – Definitions


Definitions of Heritage Resources – taken from Heritage Western Cape  Notification of Intent to Develop


1          Cultural significance means aesthetic, architectural, historical, scientific, social, spiritual, linguistic or technological value or significance.

2          Heritage resource means any place or object of cultural significance.

            “Place” includes –

(a)       a site, area or region;

(b)       a building or other structure which may include equipment, furniture, fittings and other articles associated with or connected with such building or other structure;

(c)        a group of buildings or other structures [and associated equipment, fittings, etc];

(d)       an open space, including a public square, street or park; and

(e)       in relation to the management of a place, includes the immediate surroundings.

3          Archaeological means –

(a)       material remains resulting from human activity which are in a state of disuse and are in or on land and which are older than 100 years, including artefacts, human and hominid remains and artificial features and structures;

(b)       rock art, being any form of painting, engraving or other graphic representation on a fixed rock surface or loose rock or stone, which was executed by human agency and which is older than 100 years, including any area within 10m of such representation;

(c)        wrecks, being any vessel or aircraft, or any part thereof, which was wrecked in South Africa or in the maritime zone of the Republic, any cargo, debris or artefacts found or associated therewith, which is older than 60 years or which Heritage Western Cape considers to be worthy of conservation; and

(d)       features, structures and artefacts associated with military history which are older than 75 years and the site on which they are found.

4          Palaeontologicial means any fossilised remains or fossil trace of animals or plants which lived in the geological past, other than fossil fuels or fossiliferous rock intended for industrial use, and any site which contains such fossilised remains or trace.

5          Public monuments and memorials means all monuments and memorials –

(a)       erected on land belonging to any branch of … government or on land belonging to any organisation funded by or established in terms of the legislation of such a branch of government; or

(b)       which were paid for by public subscription, government funds, or a public-spirited or military organisation, and are on land belonging to any private individual.

6          Living heritage means the intangible aspects of inherited culture, and may include cultural tradition, oral history, performance, ritual, popular memory, skills and techniques, indigenous knowledge systems and the holistic approach to nature, society and social relationships.

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